Journal archives for June 2022

11 June, 2022

Soil vs Land

I summarize the views from Ruel Lino Cruz [see Note], Sumana Ray and Naresh Chaudhari, on the basic difference between: soil and land.

  • Land is the solid part of Earth above tide level - including volcanoes & artificial ponds, where the liquid part (below sea level) we called it Oceans, Seas, Lakes, etc.
  • Soil is the "material" on Land. In agriculture, it is measured by the surface area it covers and its depth.
  • The characteristics of Soil change in respect of external forces (such as weather conditions) across the time. How long it would last depends on its vitability.


Posted on 11 June, 2022 09:13 by lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

26 June, 2022

Nerium oleander

Stem to 6 m tall. Leaves very narrowly elliptic, 5-21 X 1-3.5 cm, leathery, base cuneate or decurrent on petiole, apex acuminate or acute. Leaves are opposite or in whorled.
Flowers showy, fragrant. Sepals narrowly triangular to narrowly ovate, 3-10 mm. Corolla purplish red, pink, white, salmon, or yellow, tube 1.2-2.2 cm; lobes 1.3-3 cm, single or double. Follicles cylindric, 12-23 cm. Seeds oblong, coma 0.9-1.2 cm. Fl. spring-autumn. 2n = 22.

Sun to partial shade, withstands dry conditions. Well adapted to coastal areas. It is commonly used in highway median strip plantings in California and Texas. The species is currently wide spread and it is difficult to determine a precise region of origin. It is considered native through the Mediterranean region, to the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, to India and central China.

Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant (in particular, to herbivorous animals). ALL PARTS OF THIS PLANT ARE HIGHLY TOXIC AND MAY BE FATAL. It contains cardiac glycosides, which are known to be toxic when ingested. These and other poisons are found in all parts of the plant, whether dried or green. Ingestion of oleander plant parts can lead to serious illness and possibly death.

Poisoning Events
Cases of oleander poisonings due to accidental exposure, intentional ingestion and medicinal use have been reported worldwide. In Japan, a 49-year-old female drank water extract of oleander for suicide. Toxic symptoms appeared 30 minutes after ingestion. She died 1 day after admission (to the hospital). In the United States, a 42-year-old female burnt oleander for the disposal of prunings and inhaled the smoke periodically for 2 hours. She had toxic symptoms for 2 days, and recovered uneventfully after hospital treatment.


  1. College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University
  2. Chinese Plant Name of Nerium oleander
  3. The North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox - NC State University
  4. Toxicology of Nerium oleander, Hospital Authority
Posted on 26 June, 2022 01:20 by lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

27 June, 2022

Cell biology terminology: Diploid vs Haploid (for animals)

A cell that all chromosomes it contains are homologous chromosomes.

Cells in the germ line, which go on to produce gametes, or egg and sperm cells are haploid, which means they contain a single set of chromosomes.

The total number of chromosomes in diploid cells is described as 2n, which is twice the number of chromosomes in a haploid cell.

Genetic variation is important
Haploid cells with chromosomes genetically different from each other can amplify the gene pool, and facilitate natural selections to biological fitness and survival of that species.

Number of possible unique haploid cells in human
2 Exp(22) = 4,194,304 ~ 4M
2 Exp(23) = 8,388,608 ~ 8M

  • ~ 4M unique haploid cells with X-sex-chromosome & 4M unique haploid cells with Y-sex-chromosome for male; whereas
  • ~ 4M unique haploid cells for each female-sex-chromosome (4M + 4M) for female

The actual number of possible unique haploid cells maybe subject to certain constraints, such as evolution, social norms - preference or priority is always given to chromosomes inherited from father or mother, etc.

Posted on 27 June, 2022 05:20 by lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comments | Leave a comment