Journal archives for February 2020

February 01, 2020

Rubus spp (of Texas) comparison of features


Thank you for your interest in brambles and referencing this journal post. Due to the growing effort to further complicate Rubus by adding hundreds of complex species to the iNat database instead of taking the condensed species route like Flora of North America, I have ended my participation in ID'ing Rubus observations. The 3 posts I made will remain online for anyone that cares to reference them.




This post is Part 3 of my series on Rubus species in Texas.

Part 1 - Taxonomy of Dewberries, Blackberries, and Brambles in Texas (Rubus spp)
Part 2 - Key to Rubus spp of Texas (Dewberries, blackberries, and brambles)



In Part 2 I presented a guide to Quick ID the three most common Rubus species in Texas. This post takes species identification to the next level. It is an extract and comparison of the detailed characteristics of each species from the Flora of North America website. There is much value in looking closer at the leaflet shape and size, for example, in helping to determine species for observations that are inconclusive from the Quick ID guide. The botany terminology is heavy, so if you have a dictionary handy you will want to get it.
 R. trivialis R. pensilvanicus R. flagellaris
HABIT Shrubs to 3(–7) dm, moderately to densely armed Shrubs 10–30 dm, armed Shrubs to 3 dm, armed
STEMS biennial biennial biennial
initially low-arching, then falling and creeping (or climbing higher through other vegetation) erect to arching usually creeping, sometimes low-arching and then creeping , flowering branches usually erect
glabrous or moderately hairy glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy glabrous or densely hairy
sparsely to densely short- to long-stipitate-glandular eglandular or sparsely to moderately, rarely densely, sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular eglandular or sparsely sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular
not pruinose not pruinose not pruinose
PRICKLES moderate to dense prickles sparse to dense prickles sparse to dense
recurved erect or slightly retrorse hooked
sometimes distally slender, 1–4 mm, broad-based stout, 4–10 mm, broad-based sometimes distally slender, 1–4 mm, broad-based
BRISTLES absent or sparse to dense absent
erect to retrorse
red to purple, rarely green
slender, weak
gland-tipped
LEAVES persistent or semipersistent deciduous deciduous, some sometimes semipersistent
ternate to palmately compound palmately compound ternate or palmately compound
lustrous not lustrous not lustrous
Stipules stipules filiform, linear, or lanceolate; 2–12(–15) mm filiform to narrowly lanceolate;  (3–)5–15(–20) mm stipules filiform or linear to lanceolate, 3–20 mm
Leaflets leaflets 3–5 leaflets (3–)5(–7) leaflets 3–5
Terminal shape terminal narrowly elliptic or ovate to obovate terminal ovate to lanceolate terminal ovate or elliptic to suborbiculate
Size 5–15 × 3–13 cm 3–11 × 2–7.5 cm
Base base rounded to cuneate base rounded to shallowly cordate base broadly cuneate or rounded to shallowly cordate
Lobes unlobed unlobed usually unlobed, rarely shallowly lobed
Margins margins moderately to coarsely serrate to doubly serrate margins finely to coarsely singly or doubly serrate margins moderately to coarsely serrate to doubly serrate or serrate-dentate
Apex apex acute to acuminate apex acuminate to long-attenuate apex acute or acuminate to short-attenuate
Abaxial surface abaxial surfaces with hooked prickles on midvein abaxial surfaces green, usually with retrorse prickles on midvein abaxial surfaces with prickles on midvein or unarmed
glabrous or sparsely to moderately hairy moderately hairy sparsely to moderately hairy
eglandular or sparsely short-stipitate-glandular along central vein eglandular or sparsely to moderately sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular along veins eglandular or sessile- or short-stipitate-glandular along largest veins.
INFLORESCENCES terminal, on short shoots usually appearing axillary terminal, on short shoots usually appearing axillary terminal, on short shoots usually appearing axillary
1(–3)-flowered (2–)5–12(–16)-flowered 1–3(–8)-flowered
cymiform, racemiform, or thyrsiform racemiform
Flowering Jan–Jun Flowering May–Jul Flowering Mar–Jun
PEDICELS prickles and, often, bristles moderate to dense, recurved unarmed or prickles sparse, erect unarmed or prickles sparse to moderate, retrorse to hooked
moderately to densely hairy glabrous or sparsely to densely hairy moderately to densely hairy
sparsely to moderately sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular eglandular or sparsely to moderately sessile- to short-stipitate-glandular usually sparsely to densely sessile- or short-stipitate-glandular, rarely eglandular
FLOWERS bisexual bisexual bisexual
petals white to pink petals white petals white
elliptic to obovate, 10–16(–25) mm usually obovate to elliptic, rarely suborbiculate, 8–40 mm elliptic, obovate, or oblanceolate, 8–20 mm
filaments filiform filaments filiform filaments filiform
ovaries glabrous ovaries glabrous ovaries glabrous
FRUITS black black black, sometimes dark red
globose to ovoid, 1–1.5(–2) cm globose to cylindric, 1–2 cm globose to cylindric, 1–2 cm
drupelets 10–50 drupelets 10–100 drupelets 10–40
strongly coherent, separating with torus attached strongly coherent, separating with torus attached strongly coherent, separating with torus attached
Rubus trivialis is distinguished from other species of Rubus by its frequently glandular-bristly and generally creeping stems, abundant recurved prickles, and typically persistent or semipersistent, lustrous primocane leaves with relatively narrow leaflets. Although emerging primocanes typically reach to 30 cm above the ground, vigorous plants can have new primocanes standing erect to 70 cm that later fall to the ground or onto adjacent vegetation as they continue to enlarge.

Rubus flagellaris is extremely polymorphic, ranging from plants with low-arching (and later creeping) stems and relatively few prickles to low, creeping plants with abundant prickles. Individual plants in some years will produce abundant, arching, poorly armed stems, and in others creeping, well-armed stems. Prickle shape also varies in these plants both within a year and among different years. Local variants seem to readily intergrade with other variants.

Apparent consistent features of Rubus flagellaris are terete primocanes to 7 mm diam. near the base and presence of rigid, hooked primocane prickles to 4 mm. Primocanes that tip-root and are low and long-running are nearly consistent features of R. flagellaris. Flower number per inflorescence throughout most of the geographic range of R. flagellaris is one to three or, rarely, five.

Posted on February 01, 2020 23:18 by kimberlietx kimberlietx | 7 comments

February 02, 2020

Illustrated glossary of leaves

I love these illustrations of the parts of leaves, but on the original website (Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador) they appear as slides, making it a bit more difficult to access. I'm linking to them here for my convenience and future reference.

























Posted on February 02, 2020 00:24 by kimberlietx kimberlietx | 2 comments | Leave a comment

February 04, 2020

The Anemones Are Coming!

It’s time again for the Anemones to start blooming! We are seeing lots of observations of the leaves, so keep your eyes open for those beautiful blooms to come any time now!

Thank you to everyone who helped us last year to document the less common Carolina Anemone (A. caroliniana). We collectively documented 46 observations by 15 observers at ~19 locations! That’s quite an increase from the previous year of 4 total observations! Are you ready to make 2020 an even better year?

We would love for everyone to join us in looking for the Carolina Anemone! All you need to do is learn what to look for and post your observations to iNaturalist. That’s it! Your data is automatically included.

On the DFW Carolina Anemones project page there are links to all the important information, such as how to tell them apart from Tenpetal Anemones, where to look for them, and locations still needing to be checked. You can find all of that here: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/carolina-anemones-of-dfw/journal/22090-important-links

Don’t think you’ll remember all that while you are skipping through the wildflowers? It’s ok! Take photos of the flower, entire stem, and leaves. Post your observation ID as “Anemone” and we’ll tell you which species it is.

If you are interested in coming to a field information session once the Carolina Anemone is in bloom, leave a comment below or email Kimberlie at kimberlietx@gmail.com to receive announcements on the date and location. (To be determined once Mother Nature gives us the go-ahead.)

Thank you for helping us to learn more about this lesser known Windflower! Your efforts are invaluable and greatly appreciated!

@kimberlietx and @pfau_tarleton

Posted on February 04, 2020 01:12 by kimberlietx kimberlietx | 10 comments | Leave a comment

The Anemones Are Coming!

It’s time again for the Anemones to start blooming! We are seeing lots of observations of the leaves, so keep your eyes open for those beautiful blooms to come any time now!

Thank you to everyone who helped us last year to document the less common Carolina Anemone (A. caroliniana). We collectively documented 46 observations by 15 observers at ~19 locations! That’s quite an increase from the previous year of 4 total observations! Are you ready to make 2020 an even better year?

We would love for everyone to join us in looking for the Carolina Anemone! All you need to do is learn what to look for and post your observations to iNaturalist. That’s it! Your data is automatically included.

On the DFW Carolina Anemones project page there are links to all the important information, such as how to tell them apart from Tenpetal Anemones, where to look for them, and locations still needing to be checked. You can find all of that here: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/carolina-anemones-of-dfw/journal/22090-important-links

Don’t think you’ll remember all that while you are skipping through the wildflowers? It’s ok! Take photos of the flower, entire stem, and leaves. Post your observation ID as “Anemone” and we’ll tell you which species it is.

If you are interested in coming to a field information session once the Carolina Anemone is in bloom, leave a comment below or email Kimberlie at kimberlietx@gmail.com to receive announcements on the date and location. (To be determined once Mother Nature gives us the go-ahead.)

Thank you for helping us to learn more about this lesser known Windflower! Your efforts are invaluable and greatly appreciated!

@kimberlietx and @pfau_tarleton

Posted on February 04, 2020 01:13 by kimberlietx kimberlietx | 1 comment | Leave a comment

February 12, 2020

Anemones Across Texas

While this project is specific to Anemone caroliniana, it's good to see when all 5 Texas species are blooming! -kimberlietx

Here's a list of firsts-in-bloom for 2020 thus far:
1st Anemone berlandieri (Jan 6, San Antonio): https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37473672
1st Anemone caroliniana (Feb 8, near Brenham): https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38431999
1st Anemone edwardsiana (Feb 8, SW of Kerrville: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38443098

Still waiting on first-in-bloom for these:
Anemone okennonii
Anemone tuberosa (only 1 observation on iNat, near El Paso)

Link to all 5 Texas species:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=18&subview=grid&taxon_id=883652&view=species

Here's data on bloom times for Texas comparing berlandieri and caroliniana:
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1o7aDn7e_tvmkY7EkiYBB7n45VPphl7VbBaSiSMg6PSg/edit?usp=sharing

(Originally posted by @pfau_tarleton at https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/kimberlietx/30516-the-anemones-are-coming)

Posted on February 12, 2020 14:46 by kimberlietx kimberlietx | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 14, 2020

They're blooming, believe it or not!

Look what I found in North Richland Hills today....

Posted on February 14, 2020 04:12 by kimberlietx kimberlietx | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 27, 2020

Helpful Identification Guides

@lisa281 did something I've been longing to do, but never taken the time. She's put together a fantastic list of journal posts that iNat users have written about identifying certain topics. The list is still growing, so feel free to let Lisa know if you have posts you refer to!

https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/31012-helpful-identification-guides

Posted on February 27, 2020 12:38 by kimberlietx kimberlietx | 3 comments | Leave a comment