24 January, 2023

PSYLLOIDEA OF MEXICO Part 1: A checklist of species

The jumping plant lice of Mexico are relatively poorly known. In his monograph of Psylloidea of the new world, Crawford (1914) described less than 20 species from Mexico, and three decades later the knowledge of Mexican Psylloidea had barely advanced with Caldwell's preliminary list of Mexican species (1941) including just under 40 species. The next few years would see a bit of activity, with Tuthill describing 19 new Mexican species and Caldwell another 25 in the period from 1941-1945. By 1996, 116 species were recorded from the country (Yang & Miller 1996). This was the last major checklist for the region, and very few new species have been described since then.

I report here 137 species, an increase of 21 species from Yang & Miller's list. Some of these represent recent foreign introductions such as the Australian Red Gum Lerp Psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei), some represent recently described endemic species, and others represent new Mexican records of species previously known from the USA or elsewhere supported by iNaturalist data but not officially documented elsewhere. At least one species, Kuwayama longipennis Tuthill 1945, was absent from Yang & Miller's list despite being described from Mexico decades earlier. Additionally, the taxonomy of Psylloidea has changed significantly in the past several decades and this new checklist reflects those changes.

I estimate the number of species reported is probably less than half of the true diversity present in the country and future study should greatly increase this number. Many species reported from Southern Arizona and Texas in particular are likely to occur in parts of Northern Mexico, several Guatemalan species are expected in Southern Mexico, and undoubtedly many undescribed species occur throughout the country. Species expected from the country but not recorded are not included, but a single undescribed species is included on this list.

Much work must be done to fully understand the Mexican species. Unfortunately, many of the species of the region are poorly described (especially Caldwell's species), and several species are currently placed in incorrect genera. Despite this, in the upcoming parts of this series I will attempt to relay the current knowledge regarding the Mexican species with the hopes of advancing the understanding of Mexican Psylloidea in addition to promoting an interest in the species from the country.

ᵃ = Species not listed in Yang & Mitter's (1996) checklist
ᵇ = Species not native to Mexico




ᵃAphalara ortegae Burckhardt, Cort & Queiroz, 2020
ᵃAphalara persicaria Caldwell, 1937
Aphalara simila Caldwell, 1937
Craspedolepta caudata (Crawford, 1914)
Craspedolepta numerica (Caldwell, 1941)
Craspedolepta nupera (Van Duzee, 1923)
Craspedolepta veaziei (Patch, 1911)
Hodkinsonia montana (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)


ᵇBlastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, 1985
ᵃᵇCtenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890)
ᵃᵇCtenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997
ᵃᵇGlycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964


Syncoptozus mexicanus Hodkinson, 1990


ᵃPseudophacopteron sp. n.


Ameroscena mexicana Burckhardt & Lauterer, 1989


Calophya dicksoni Jensen, 1957
ᵃᵇCalophya schini Tuthill, 1959
ᵃCalophya spondiadis Burckhardt & Mendez, 2016



Epicarsa corniculata Crawford, 1911
Paracarsidara dugesii (Löw, 1886)
Paracarsidara gigantea (Crawford, 1911)
Paracarsidara mexicana (Crawford, 1911)


Synoza floccosa Ferris, 1928
Synoza pulchra Laing, 1923


ᵃPachypsylla celtidisasterisca Riley, 1890
ᵃPachypsylla celtidismamma (Riley, 1875)
ᵃPachypsylla pallida Patch, 1912
Pachypsylla tropicala Caldwell, 1944
ᵃPachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861)
Tetragonocephala flava Crawford, 1914



ᵃᵇEuphyllura olivina (Costa, 1839) (tentatively listed based on iNaturalist observation)


Diclidophlebia tuxtlaensis (Conconi, 1972)
ᵃLivia caricis Crawford, 1914
Livia mexicana Caldwell, 1944


Neophyllura mexicana (Jensen, 1952)


Mastigimas ernstii (Schwarz, 1899)
Mastigimas schwarzi (Tuthill, 1945)



ᵇAcizzia uncatoides (Ferris & Klyver, 1932)


Aphalaroida inermis Crawford, 1914
Aphalaroida lysilomae Hodkinson, 1991
Aphalaroida pithecolobia Crawford, 1914
Aphalaroida rauca Hodkinson, 1991
Freysuila dugesii Aleman, 1887


Caradocia delongi Caldwell, 1944
Euceropsylla minuticona (Crawford, 1914)
Euceropsylla orizabensis (Crawford, 1914)
Heteropsylla aurantiaca Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla boquetensis (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)
Heteropsylla clavata Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla crawfordi Enderlein, 1918
Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla didubiata Caldwell, 1944
Heteropsylla flexuosa Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla forcipata Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla fusca Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla huasachae Caldwell, 1941
Heteropsylla intermedia Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla mexicana Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla mimosae Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla muricata Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla nebulosa Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla propinqua Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla texana Crawford, 1914
Mitrapsylla albalineata Crawford, 1914
ᵃMitrapsylla cf. surinamensis (Šulc, 1914)
Mitrapsylla cubana Crawford, 1914
Mitrapsylla deserata Caldwell, 1944
Telmapsylla lagunculariae (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)


ᵃᵇDiaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908


Katacephala arcuata Crawford, 1914
Katacephala cinctata Hodkinson, 1991
Katacephala grandiceps Crawford, 1914


Euphalerus fasciatus Laing, 1923
Euphalerus gallicolus Ferris, 1928
Euphalerus nidifex Schwarz, 1904


Platycorypha amabilis (Caldwell, 1947)
Platycorypha magnifrons (Crawford, 1914)
Platycorypha princeps Tuthill, 1945


Cacopsylla "americana" (Crawford, 1914) (complex of species, no way to know what this record refers to)
"Cacopsylla" nana (Tuthill, 1938) (I suggest this species properly belongs in Purshivora)

Psyllidae incertae sedis

"Arytaina" virgina Caldwell, 1944 (impossible to know what genus this species should be referred to)
"Psylla" minutiforma Caldwell, 1944 (male genitalia suggests Amorphicola)


Bactericera antennata (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera bifurca (Tuthill, 1944)
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc, 1909)
Bactericera dubia (Tuthill, 1943)
Bactericera minuta (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera rubra (Tuthill, 1939)
Baeoalitriozus diospyri (Ashmead, 1881)
Calinda collaris (Crawford, 1910)
ᵃCalinda graciliforceps Olivares & Burckhardt, 1997
ᵃCalinda longicaudata Olivares & Burckhardt, 1997
Calinda proximata (Crawford, 1911)
Ceropsylla sideroxyli Riley, 1885
Kuwayama elongagena (Caldwell, 1941)
Kuwayama hyalina Caldwell, 1944
Kuwayama lateralis Caldwell, 1944
ᵃKuwayama longipennis Tuthill 1945
Kuwayama medicaginis (Crawford, 1910)
Kuwayama mexicana Caldwell, 1944
Kuwayama oaxacenis (Crawford, 1911)
Kuwayama plummeri (Caldwell, 1944)
Kuwayama striata Caldwell, 1944
Leuronota inusitata (Tuthill, 1944)
Leuronota maculata (Crawford, 1910)
Leuronota maritima Tuthill, 1944
Leuronota michoacana Ferris, 1928
Trichochermes magna (Laing, 1923)
ᵃᵇTrioza adventicia Tuthill, 1952 (tentatively listed based on iNaturalist observation)
ᵃTrioza aguacate Hollis & Martin, 1997
Trioza albifrons Crawford, 1910
Trioza anceps Tuthill, 1944
Trioza apartata Caldwell, 1944
Trioza bella Tuthill, 1944
Trioza dampfi Tuthill, 1944
Trioza discrepans (Tuthill, 1945)
Trioza epiphitatae Caldwell, 1944
Trioza grandipennis Tuthill, 1944
Trioza hildagoensis Caldwell, 1944
Trioza incidata Tuthill, 1945
Trioza longigenae Tuthill, 1945
Trioza magnoliae (Ashmead, 1881)
Trioza mexicana Crawford, 1911
Trioza nigriconus Tuthill, 1944
Trioza nigriscutum Tuthill, 1945
Trioza psyllihabitus Tuthill, 1945
Trioza pulchra (Tuthill, 1945)
Trioza rhinosa Caldwell, 1944
Trioza rugosata Caldwell, 1944
Trioza russellae Tuthill, 1944
Trioza stroma Caldwell, 1944
Trioza thoracica Caldwell, 1941
Trioza zogoda Caldwell, 1944
Triozoida formiciformis (Caldwell, 1944)
Triozoida limbata (Enderlein, 1918)
Triozoida prima (Tuthill, 1945)

Incertae sedis

"Psyllopsis" mexicana Crawford, 1914 (wing venation seems suggestive of Platycorypha, though male genitalia suggests something else)

Posted on 24 January, 2023 18:29 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comments | Leave a comment

21 November, 2022

First records of the psyllid Heteropsylla intermedia in the USA

Several years ago I found an unusual psyllid on Catclaw Mimosa (Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera) in the Santa Catalina Mountains:

At the time I tried to attribute this psyllid to a possibly undescribed species of Cacopsylla (what would be considered Purshivora today), but this was clearly not quite right. An option I had not considered at all was Heteropsylla, a genus whose US representation includes a number of species recognizable by their lack of genal cones, such as the common mesquite psyllid Heteropsylla texana:

However, not all Heteropsylla lack genal cones, and several species in Mexico do have quite prominent genal cones. The Heteropsylla distincta group in particular includes a number of species with both prominent genal cones and maculated forewings.

Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis 1992 describe and illustrate Heteropsylla intermedia. The wing maculation is fairly distinct, lacking both the dark streak on the apex of Rs and the dark spot on Cu1b that is present in Heteropsylla texana. The dark marking that extends from M1+2 to Cu1a is similar to that in the Mexican species Heteropsylla nebulosa and H. muricata, but the overall wing maculation is much less extensive than in those species.

Previously, this species had only been known from Mexico, where it was collected on Mimosa ?albida.

In October 2022, iNaturalist user Joe Girgente (joseph92) made another observation of this psyllid in Lubbock, Texas:

© Joe Girgente, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

With these two records, the known range of Heteropsylla intermedia is expanded to include the southern USA in addition to Mexico. This claim is made with the caveat that as neither of the two recorded specimens were collected, there is a nonzero possibility that the USA records could represent an undescribed species similar to but geographically distinct from Heteropsylla intermedia. Future collecting of psyllids on Mimosa in the southern USA will undoubtedly resolve this uncertainty.

Posted on 21 November, 2022 13:50 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comments | Leave a comment

14 October, 2022

Notes and identity of the Burrobrush Gall Psyllid

I. Background. When I first moved to Tucson five years ago in the winter of 2018, one of the first plants I recorded was a ragweed-like bush with long thin leaves covered with numerous dried flowers. Upon posting to inat, local plant expert Steve Jones identified this plant to be Ambrosia monogyra (Singlewhorl Burrobrush) and informed me that those "flowers" were in actuality galls, but he didn't know what insect was responsible for them.

Later that year, Steve would go on to investigate the galls more closely and photograph the insect inside, but it would take me another 3 years to notice this observation and realize the insect he had photographed was not a gall midge like I would have expected but a psyllid.

Steve's psyllid was a nymph, and while nymphs are difficult to identify I determined that it belonged to the genus Craspedolepta, a holarctic genus typically associated with plants in the family Asteraceae. With over 40 species, Craspedolepta is the second most diverse genus of psyllids in North America, although none are known from Ambrosia, raising questions on whether this psyllid was in fact the gall inducer or just an incidental/inquiline. Later that year, James Bailey would go on to photograph more Craspedolepta nymphs inside Ambrosia monogyra galls which seemed to answer that question, but raise another: what species of Craspedolepta induces galls on Ambrosia monogyra? Is it an undescribed species?

Nymphs from burrobrush galls. (image credits: left: Steve Jones. Right: James Bailey)

In October, 2022, I investigated gall-covered Ambrosia monogyra and was able to find three adult female psyllids, which I have identified to be Craspedolepta lapsus.

II. Identification. Adult Craspedolepta can be recognized among the North American psyllid fauna by the following combination of characters: genal cones absent, pterostigma absent, vein R+M+Cu bifurcating into veins R & M+Cu, vertex wider than long, antennae shorter than 2x head width, and the clypeus not long and tubular. Craspedolepta in North America can be subdivided into approximately 4 groups which may or may not be strictly monophyletic but are useful in species recognition. These groups can be summarized as follows:

  1. C. angustipennis group: Species with white-ish wings covered in dark spots, usually on Artemesia
  2. C. veaziei group: Species with yellowish to clear wings, usually covered in dark spots, usually on Solidago
  3. C. vulgaris group: Species with yellowish to clear wings, without spots, usually on Solidago
  4. C. nebulosa group: Species associated with fireweed

Several exceptions, such as Craspedolepta sonchi or C. eas, don't fall into any of these groups but are easily identifiable and do not need to be considered for the purpose of this study.

The psyllids collected were determined to belong to the Craspedolepta vulgaris group by reference to the spotless yellow wings and a total length over 3.5mm. However, certain species of the C. veaziei group may rarely fit these characteristics as well, so both of these groups were considered for the purposes of this study.

In addition to the presence or absence of wing maculation, characters useful for species-level diagnosis in the genus Craspedolepta include the arrangement of the surface spinelets on the wings, the shape of the head in dorsal view, the length of the antennae and number of antennae segments, the shape of the clypeus in lateral view, the total length, and the male and female genitalia. These characters are discussed in the following sections.

Surface spinelets. Surface spinelets are minute setae on the wings which are generally only visible at high magnification but may sometimes be visible in very high definition photos. The relative density of these spinelets may be useful in diagnosing species, and in some species they are arranged to form a hexagonal pattern. A summary of the surface spinelets for veaziei and vulgaris group species is given as follows:

Veaziei group
C. veaziei, C. caudata, C. numerica, C. nota, C. macula, C. fumida: spinelets arranged in a roughly hexagonal pattern
C. maculimagna, C. oregonensis: spinelets sparse, no pattern

Vulgaris group
C. vulgaris, C. parvula, C. constricta, C. furcata, C. minuta, C. flavida, C. ochracea: spinelets arranged in a roughly hexagonal pattern
C. magna, C. lapsus, C. scurra: spinelets sparse, no pattern

Head characters. Characters relating to the head and antennae may occasionally be useful in Craspedolepta species determination but were not necessary for this study.

Total length. Length is measured from the head to the wingtips. Craspedolepta generally measure between 1.5 to 4mm with females typically larger than males, but the size is relatively constant for each species.

A summary of the average lengths of veaziei and vulgaris group females is given as follows:

Veaziei group females in mm
2.8 ± 0.13 C. veaziei
2.6 ± 0.06 C. caudata
2.3 ± 0.03 C. numerica
2.7 ± 0.20 C. nota
2.8 ± 0.09 C. macula
3.1 ± 0.13 C. maculimagna
2.5 ± 0.06 C. oregonensis
3.6 ± 0.17 C. fumida

Vulgaris group females in mm
3.5 ± 0.13 C. magna
3.1 ± 0.17 C. vulgaris
2.5 ± 0.10 C. parvula
3.0 ± 0.12 C. constricta
3.3 ± 0.17 C. furcata
2.5 ± ?.?? C. minuta (missing pages 68-69 from Journet & Vickery, unable to assess)
3.9 ± ?.?? C. lapsus (only 1 female analyzed by Journet & Vickery, so average measurements are unknown)
3.2 ± 0.09 C. flavida
3.6 ± 0.10 C. scurra
3.6 ± 0.14 C. ochracea

In general, species of the veaziei group (spotted wings) are smaller than species of the vulgaris group (spotless wings), with a few exceptions. Only C. fumida and C. maculimagna exceed 3.0mm, and of these only C. fumida is described as being occasionally spotless. The typical spotted form of C. fumida may be distinguished by all other members of the veaziei group easily by its size, but the potential of spotless forms means that it must be considered when trying to diagnose spotless specimens (>3.0mm). The opposite is true of the relatively small spotless members of the C. vulgaris group, C. parvula and C. minuta. Females of the C. angustipennis group need not be considered for this study, but all species measure less than 3.0mm except the densely-spotted C. maculidracunculi (3.1mm).

Genitalia. Male genitalia is often more useful than female genitalia in species determination, but there are several exceptions. In particular, C. caudata and C. numerica have a distinctly downcurved dorsal valve, C. constricta and C. lapsus have an abruptly narrowed dorsal valve, and C. furcata has a distinctly abbreviated ventral valve. Differences between other species are much more slight. The genitalia for all members of the veaziei and vulgaris groups are illustrated here (source: modified from Journet & Vickery 1979):

Figures. 1. C. veaziei, 2. C. caudata, 3. C. numerica, 4. C. nota, 5. C. macula, 6. C. maculimagna, 7. C. oregonensis, 8. C. fumida, 9. C. magna, 10. C. vulgaris, 11. C. parvula, 12. C. constricta, 13. C. furcata, 14. C. minuta, 15. C. lapsus, 16. C. flavida, 17. C. scurra, 18. C. ochracea

III. Methods. Two adult female Craspedolepta were collected from Ambrosia monogyra and were analyzed in regard to the above outlined characters. Surface spinelets were assessed microscopically using 100x magnification.

IV. Results. Collected females were measured to be 3.6 and 3.7mm. A microscopic analysis of the surface spinelets revealed that the spinelets were sparse, not arranged in a distinctly hexagonal pattern. The female genitalia of both specimens were compared to Journet & Vickery's illustrations.

The large size coupled with the sparse spinelet distribution instantly excludes the entire veaziei group and most members of the vulgaris group except C. magna, C. lapsus, and C. scurra. The genitalia proved to be distinctive however, with the dorsal plate abruptly narrowed before the apex, a character only seen in C. lapsus (compare fig 15 above, and please ignore the bad lighting - still working on a way to take better illuminated microscope pics)

V. Conclusions. Craspedolepta lapsus was described from a small series of adults from Davis, Texas, and the host plant and life history of the species were until now unknown. Two assumptions are made here: the identification of the psyllids examined here as Craspedolepta lapsus assumes that there is not an undescribed species which has a female with identical characteristics as C. lapsus, and the association of this species with burrobrush galls assumes that there are not more than one Craspedolepta species associated with Ambrosia monogyra. Further study and collection may shed light on whether these hypotheses could be true. No male psyllids could be found for examination in the current study.

Burrobrush galls can be fairly common locally in Arizona, but it is likely that this psyllid occurs throughout the range of the hostplant, at least to western Texas. An examination of Ambrosia monogyra observations on iNaturalist may yield further information about this insect's range. Nymphs have been found in July and August (iNat observations), and adults have been recorded from September and October. While many plants were heavily galled in October, I was not able to find any nymphs inside galls at this time, though I did find several nymph exuviae. The complete life history and development period of this psyllid remains unknown at this time.

Posted on 14 October, 2022 12:51 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 6 comments | Leave a comment

04 July, 2022

Help me find psyllids on Beaked Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta)

Background. Members of the birch family (Betulaceae) are a common host plant for psyllids in North America. All species associated with plants in this family are now referred to the genus Psylla, and include Psylla alni, P. viridescens, P. caudata and P. floccosa on Alder, P. striata, P. hartigii, P. betulae and P. betulaenanae on Birch, and P. carpinicola on Hornbeam. Many of these psyllids are relatively frequently observed, due to their large size in addition to the rather conspicuous nymphs which are usually covered in dense white fluff. One additional psyllid belongs to this group: P. diloncha, which is recorded from from the plant historically referred to as Corylus rostrata but is today known as Corylus cornuta, or Beaked Hazelnut.

Beaked Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) is a somewhat common tree that grows in the eastern and midwestern USA into western Canada and south along the west coast into California. The recorded distribution of Psylla diloncha mirrors the host distribution, with records from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, Alberta, and California. Historical records from Kansas and Nevada also exist but seem to be outside of Beaked Hazelnut's current native range.

Original descriptions and illustrations of P. diloncha would suggest that it is most similar to the birch psyllid P. striata, but with genal cones very long and with the pterostigma almost entirely lacking. It may also be similar to the hornbeam psyllid P. carpinicola, but with the cubital cell less strongly arched and probably with the wings a bit more yellowish.

To date, I can find no example of photos on iNaturalist or Bugguide which are convincingly suggestive of this species, so perhaps that's where you come in. If Beaked Hazelnut is in your area, try investigating it for these psyllids; at this time of year, adults are expected. Nymphs are likely to also cover themselves in conspicuous white fluff like other members of the genus, but it is not known when nymphs may be found. Photos of this species will advance our understanding of this genus and will also be an iNaturalist first.

Beaked Hazelnut leaves. C. Mallory

Psylla striata adult © Stuart Tingley, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Psylla diloncha is expected to look similar to this species.

Psylla viridescens nymphs on alder. © Masumi Palhof, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Psylla diloncha nymphs may be similar

Posted on 04 July, 2022 02:07 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 1 comment | Leave a comment

03 July, 2022

A checklist of the Psylloidea of Canada

The Canadian psyllid fauna is often lumped together with the USA fauna in checklists, and at least 354 species of psyllids are currently known to occur in the region consisting of the United States and Canada. However, many of the species found in the lower USA do not occur in Canada, and so a more focused regional checklist felt necessary to better understand the Canadian fauna. Herein I list the 119 species which are currently known to occur in Canada, but undoubtedly there are many undocumented species which likely also occur within the country.

14 species are considered to be non-native to the region; introduced species are listed in italics. Species not known to occur outside of Canada are listed in bold. Provinces in which a species has been recorded are listed with the westmost province first and then continue from west to east. The host plant (if known) is recorded following the distribution.

A printer-friendly PDF version of this list can be accessed here.




Aphalara confusa Caldwell, 1937 (AB). Rumex
Aphalara curta Caldwell, 1937 (AB). Polygonum/Persicaria
Aphalara dentata Caldwell, 1937 (AB).
Aphalara loca Caldwell, 1937 (AB, MB). Polygonum/Persicaria
Aphalara manitobaensis Caldwell, 1938 (AB, MB).
Aphalara monticola Hodkinson, 1973 (AB). Rumex
Aphalara nigra Caldwell, 1937 (MB).
Aphalara nubifera Patch, 1912 (AB). Rumex
Aphalara persicaria Caldwell, 1937 (BC). Polygonum/Persicaria
Aphalara rumicis Mally, 1894 (BC, NS). Rumex
Aphalara steironemicola Richards, 1970 (ON). Lysimachia


Craspedolepta angustipennis (Crawford, 1911) (YT, BC, AB, SK, ON, QC). Achillea
Craspedolepta canadensis Journet & Vickery, 1979 (BC, SK, ON). Artemisia
Craspedolepta flavida (Caldwell, 1938) (AB, SK, MB, ON, QC). Euthamia
Craspedolepta fumida (Caldwell, 1938) (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS). Solidago
Craspedolepta furcata (Caldwell, 1936) (BC, AB, MB, NB, NS). Euthamia
Craspedolepta gutierreziae (Klyver, 1931) (AB). Guiterrezia
Craspedolepta maculipilosa Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, SK).
Craspedolepta magna Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE). Solidago
Craspedolepta minutissima (Crawford, 1911) (BC). Artemisia
Craspedolepta nebulosa (Zetterstedt, 1828) (YT, BC, NT, AB, MB, ON, QC). Chamaenerion
Craspedolepta nota Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, MB).
Craspedolepta ochracea (Provancher, 1872) (QC). Solidago
Craspedolepta parvula Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, SK, QC, NB). Solidago
Craspedolepta schwarzi (Ashmead, 1904) (BC, AB). Chamaenerion
Craspedolepta scurra Journet & Vickery, 1979 (QC, NS). Solidago
Craspedolepta sonchi (Foerster, 1848) (AB, SK, MB, ON). Sonchus
Craspedolepta subpunctata (Foerster, 1848) (YT, BC, AB, SK, MB, ON). Chamaenerion
Craspedolepta vancouverensis (Klyver, 1931) (BC, AB). Artemisia
Craspedolepta veaziei (Patch, 1911) (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS). Solidago
Craspedolepta vulgaris (Journet & Vickery, 1979) (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE). Solidago



Rhinocola aceris (Linnaeus, 1758) (ON, PE). Acer



Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (BC). Eucalyptus




Calophya triozomima Schwarz, 1904 (AB, ON). Rhus




Pachypsylla celtidismamma (Fletcher, 1883) (SK, MB, ON, QC). Celtis
Pachypsylla celtidisvesicula Riley, 1884 (ON, QC). Celtis
Pachypsylla cohabitans Yang & Riemann 2001 (ON). Celtis




Psyllopsis discrepans (Flor, 1861) (AB, ON, NS). Fraxinus
Psyllopsis fraxini (Linné, 1758) (BC). Fraxinus
Psyllopsis fraxinicola (Foerster, 1848) (BC, NS). Fraxinus



Livia bifasciata Provancher, 1886 (ON, QC, NB). Juncus
Livia caricis Crawford, 1914 (BC). Carex
Livia crawfordi Hodkinson & Bird, 2000 (ON). Juncus
Livia maculipennis (Fitch, 1857) (ON). Juncus
Livia manitobensis Hodkinson & Bird, 2000 (MB, NB). Carex
Livia saltatrix Provancher, 1886 (ON, QC, NB). Carex
Livia vernalis Fitch, 1851 (ON, QC). Carex



Neophyllura arbuti (Schwarz, 1904) (BC). Arbutus
Neophyllura arctostaphyli (Schwarz, 1904) (BC, NB). Arctostaphylos




Arytaina genistae (Latreille, 1804) (BC, NS). Cytisus


Arytainilla spartiophila (Foerster, 1848) (BC). Cytisus


Cacopsylla alaskensis (Ashmead, 1904) (MB). Salix
Cacopsylla alba (Crawford, 1914) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla americana (Crawford, 1914) (AB, NS?). Salix
Cacopsylla annulata (Fitch, 1851) (ON, QC, NB, NS). Acer
Cacopsylla arctica (Walker, 1852) (ON). Salix
Cacopsylla breviata (Patch, 1912) (ON). Salix
Cacopsylla fatsiae (Jensen, 1957) (BC). Fatsia
Cacopsylla fibulata (Crawford, 1914) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla hamata (Tuthill, 1944) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla highwoodensis (Hodkinson, 1978) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla kananaskensis (Hodkinson, 1976) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla latiforceps (Tuthill, 1943) (BC). Salix
Cacopsylla magnicauda (Crawford, 1914) (BC, AB, SK, MB). Eleagnus
Cacopsylla mali (Schmidberger, 1836) (QC, NL, NB, NS, PE). Malus
Cacopsylla minor (Crawford, 1914) (BC, AB). Salix
Cacopsylla myrtilli (Wagner, 1947) (AB). Vaccinium
Cacopsylla negundinis (Mally, 1894) (AB, NB). Acer
Cacopsylla parallela (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Salix
Cacopsylla peregrina (Foerster, 1848) (BC, NL, NS). Crataegus
Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster, 1848) (BC, QC, NS). Pyrus
Cacopsylla rara (Tuthill, 1944) (AB, NS). Viburnum
Cacopsylla rufipennis Hodkinson, 1978 (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla sinuata Crawford, 1914 (AB, MB, ON, NL). Salix
Cacopsylla stricklandi (Caldwell, 1939) (BC, AB). Shepherdia
Cacopsylla subspiculata (Hodkinson, 1976) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla tuthilli (Caldwell, 1939) (AB). Shepherdia


Ceanothia fuscipennis (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Ceanothus
Ceanothia robusta (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Ceanothus


Livilla variegata (Löw, 1881) (BC, NL). Laburnum


Psylla alni (Linné, 1758) (BC, AB). Alnus
Psylla betulae (Linné, 1758) (AB). Betula
Psylla carpinicola Crawford, 1914 (ON, QC, NB, NS). Carpinus
Psylla caudata Crawford, 1914 (BC). Alnus
Psylla diloncha (Caldwell, 1938) (AB). Corylus
Psylla floccosa Patch, 1909 (BC, AB, MB, ON, NB, NS). Alnus
Psylla hartigii (Flor, 1861) (AB, NS). Betula
Psylla striata (Patch, 1911) (BC, AB, NB, NS). Betula
Psylla viridescens (Provancher, 1872) (BC, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS). Alnus


Purshivora coryli (Patch, 1912) (BC). Purshia
Purshivora minuta (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Purshia
Purshivora pubescens (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Purshia


Spanioneura buxi (Linné, 1758) (BC, ON, QC, NL, NB, NS, PE). Buxus
Spanioneura fonscolombii Foerster, 1848 (ON). Buxus
Spanioneura sanguinea (Provancher, 1872) (BC, AB, MB, ON, QC, NL, NB, NS). Prunus



Bactericera arbolensis (Crawford, 1910) (SK). Shepherdia
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc, 1909) (BC, AB, SK, ON). Solanaceae (many genera)
Bactericera incerta (Tuthill, 1943) (BC). Salix
Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford, 1910) (AB). Convolvulus
Bactericera minuta (Crawford, 1910) (AB). Salix
Bactericera pletschi (Tuthill, 1944) (AB).
Bactericera salicivora (Reuter, 1876) (BC, AB, ON, NB). Salix
Bactericera shepherdiae (Tuthill, 1938) (YT, BC, AB). Shepherdia
Bactericera varians (Crawford, 1910) (BC, AB). Salix


Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter, 1876) (BC, AB, NB, NS, PE). Chenopodium


Lauritrioza alacris (Flor, 1861) (BC). Laurus


Neotriozella pyrifolii (Forbes, 1885) (ON, NS). Styrax


Phylloplecta occidentalis (Tuthill, 1939) (BC). Rubus
Phylloplecta stylifera (Patch, 1912) (MB, ON).
Phylloplecta tripunctata (Fitch, 1851) (ON, QC, NB). Rubus


Trioza albifrons Crawford, 1910 (BC, AB). Urtica
Trioza aylmeriae Patch, 1912 (ON). Amelanchier
Trioza forcipula Patch, 1912 (ON).
Trioza frontalis Crawford, 1910 (BC, AB, MB). Amelanchier
Trioza inversa Tuthill, 1939 (BC). Amelanchier
Trioza obtusa Patch, 1911 (AB, ON, NB, NL, NS). Amelanchier
Trioza quadripunctata Crawford, 1910 (BC, AB). Urtica
Trioza sulcata Crawford, 1910 (AB). Amelanchier
Trioza longicornis* Crawford, 1910 (BC). Salix?

Host plants

The host plant genera for Canadian Psylloidea are listed, followed by the number of species known from that host. Some genera are grouped together based on recent changes in plant taxonomy that make it difficult to understand historical host plant records, or by a tendency of certain psyllid species groups to use multiple related genera of plants. Of the 44 host plant genus or genus groups known to be associated with psyllids in Canada, 21 of them are host to more than one species.

Salix (20)
Euthamia/Solidago (9)
Amelanchier (5)
Shepherdia/Eleagnus (5)
Alnus (4)
Carex (4)
Rumex (4)
Acer (3)
Artemisia (3)
Betula (3)
Celtis (3)
Chamaenerion (3)
Fraxinus (3)
Juncus (3)
Polygonum/Persicaria (3)
Purshia (3)
Buxus (2)
Ceanothus (2)
Cytisus (2)
Rubus (2)
Urtica (2)
Achillea (1)
Arbutus (1)
Arctostaphylos (1)
Carpinus (1)
Chenopodium (1)
Convolvulus (1)
Corylus (1)
Crataegus (1)
Eucalyptus (1)
Fatsia (1)
Guiterrezia (1)
Laburnum (1)
Laurus (1)
Lysimachia (1)
Malus (1)
Prunus (1)
Pyrus (1)
Rhus (1)
Solanaceae (many genera) (1)
Sonchus (1)
Styrax (1)
Vaccinium (1)
Viburnum (1)

Posted on 03 July, 2022 01:31 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 1 comment | Leave a comment

21 June, 2022

Notes on the Avocado Psyllids

Background. Avocado (Persea americana) is a plant that probably needs no introduction. The plant is grown around the world and everybody loves avocados! Probably less loved, however, are the creatures responsible for doing this to avocado leaves:

image credit: © José Humberto Castañón González, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

If you have an avocado tree growing in your backyard or somewhere else in your neighborhood, you've probably never seen these leaf galls. Unless you happen to live in Mexico, where Trioza anceps - the psyllid responsible for these galls - is the most frequently observed native Mexican psyllid on iNaturalist.

As of now, the psyllid is not known to be established in the USA or elsewhere outside of its native range in Mexico/Guatemala, where it is quite common. For a plant that has been imported around the world, it is unusual that one of its primary parasites has not yet been inadvertently introduced as well, as has happened with so many other plants (the Asian citrus psyllid comes to mind), though it may just be a matter of time. But while Trioza anceps is common in Mexico, it does not seem to be present in other parts of Persea americana's native range such as South America, which may indicate that the psyllid is very narrowly host specific to only the Mexican/Guatemalan race/subspecies of Avocados.

Species. Trioza anceps is the most commonly observed avocado psyllid due to to the conspicuous nature of its galls, but it is actually just one of at least four species of Trioza on Avocado. All appear to have fairly narrow natural distributions, again indicating that species may have a preference for specific races/subspecies of avocados. The four psyllid species are outlined below.

1. Trioza anceps. Creates leaf galls projecting on the upper surface of the leaves, as pictured above. Mexico/Guatemala
2. Trioza perseae. Similar to Trioza anceps, but leaf galls project from the ventral surface of the leaf. Peru/Columbia. Tuthill notes that this species only effected indigenous South American avocados not the Mexican/Guatemalan variety, even though some of the foliage intermingled. I could not find any evidence of this species on iNaturalist in South American Persea americana observations.
3. Trioza godoyae. This species does not create leaf galls like the previously mentioned species but instead creates marginal leaf roll galls, similar to those created by the Red Bay Psyllid (Trioza magnoliae) on Persea palustris. Known only from Costa Rica. While these galls should be conspicuous, there are no examples of this species yet on iNaturalist.
4. Trioza aguacate. Adults are similar to Trioza anceps, but nymphs do not induce leaf galls. Instead, they cause the deformation of leaves and young shoots. Known only from Mexico, apparently sympatric with Trioza anceps.

Posted on 21 June, 2022 12:21 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 comments | Leave a comment

19 June, 2022

Brief notes on psyllids associated with Cirio, aka Boojum Tree (Fouquieria columnaris)

Background. Cirio, also known as Boojum Tree (Fouquieria columnaris) is a striking desert plant which is endemic to Baja California, related to the Ocotillo which is common in the deserts of the southwestern USA. Outside of its native range, Boojum Tree may be occasionally used in desert landscaping, botanical gardens, etc, especially in southern Arizona and California.

Calophya is a genus of psyllids primarily associated with plants in the family Anacardiaceae. In North America, most species are associated with Sumac (Rhus) whereas in South America most species are associated with Peppertree (Schinus). There are some exceptions to the rule however, such as the North American Calophya oweni which breeds on mistletoe. Another notable exception is Calophya dicksoni which breeds on the Boojum Tree. The species was first discovered in Punta Prieta, Baja California, by R.C Dickson in late May 1949, who wrote "nymphs and adults were always found together on the Cirio leaves ... the nymphs were so thick in places that the plants were covered with pellets of dried honeydew." I know of no further records of this species other than the type series.

Identification. Calophya dicksoni is similar to other species of Calophya such as the californian Lemonadeberry Psyllid Calophya californica, but is readily identifiable by the presence of 4 pale longitudinal stripes on the thorax similar to what you might find in Cacopsylla species. It can be identified as Calophya by the large cubital cell and the position of the anal break which is distant from the cubital cell.

Closing thoughts. To my knowledge Calophya dicksoni has never been seen in over 70 years. It may very well be restricted to Baja California, but it could also just as easily show up on planted Boojum Tree in California or Arizona. Either way, if you ever run into this plant I don't think it would hurt to check the leaves for the thick dried honeydew as Dickson originally described... who knows, perhaps it could lead to the rediscovery of this species.

Posted on 19 June, 2022 12:39 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 3 comments | Leave a comment

18 June, 2022

Help me find psyllids on Snowbell (Styrax sp)

Background. Styrax grows in the the eastern USA and California and until recently was not considered to be a hostplant for psyllids. On May 31 2018 Charley Eiseman submitted to bugguide a psyllid reared from a nymph found on American Snowbell (Styrax americana) which I identified to be Neotriozella pyrifoli. A few days later, Tracy Feldman submitted an observation of psyllid nymphs on the same host plant. The nymphs were found numerously along the dorsal surface of the midrib of the leaves. In May 2021, inat users Chloe and Trevor Van Loon submitted a psyllid from California from California Snowdrop Bush (Styrax redivivus), and I determined the psyllid to be the species Neotriozella sculptoconus. Based on these observations, it would appear that psyllids in the genus Neotriozella (for which host plant associations were previously unknown) are specialists on Styrax*

Observations of Neotriozella are rare, owing in part to the fact that the host plants have been historically unknown. Excluding the Arizona species Neotriozella hirsuta which appears to instead belong to the genus Metatrioza, there are three known species of Neotriozella in the USA, represented by two total observations on iNat. Here's what we know about them so far:

  1. Neotriozella pyrifoli: Distribution: eastern USA, from Louisiana north to Nova Scotia. Host: Styrax americana. Host range: Southeastern USA. It is likely that this species uses a different species of Styrax in the northern parts of its range. Additionally, there are no images of this species on iNat. Can you help fill the gaps?
  2. Neotriozella sculptoconus: Distribution: California. Host: Styrax redivivus. Host range: California endemic. We have only one image of this species on iNat so far. Let's find some more.
  3. Neotriozella laticeps. Distribution: southeastern USA. Host: Unknown. We have a couple images of this species, but the host is unknown. Searching Styrax in the the southeastern USA may uncover new data to help understand this species.

Other potential hosts. Styrax grandifolia in the southeastern USA, Styrax platanifolius in Texas, and Styrax japonicus in the northeastern USA may be potential hosts for either these or (maybe!) undescribed species of Neotriozella. And yes, I am including the Japanese Styrax japonicus because even though it is not native, there are psyllids on this host in Japan...

How to photograph psyllids if you find them. If you are only able to take a single photo, take a lateral shot, but the most important shot for this group of psyllids shows the face. In the genus Neotriozella, the genal cones are closely appressed, unlike many similar species which have divergent genal cones.

We have only two observations of these Styrax psyllids so far, but we know a lot more than we did even just a few years ago. Let's try to find out more about them :)

Posted on 18 June, 2022 11:04 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comments | Leave a comment

05 June, 2022

Every nearctic psyllid genus not yet pictured on inat, and where to find them

It's 2022 and it feels like a lot more people are looking for bugs these days. Here are the remaining nearctic* psyllid genera we don't have pics of yet:

*technically a couple of these are neotropical genera that are probably restricted to southern florida, but I'm still going to list them

Limataphalara (1 species, Southern Florida, on Nectandra coriacea)
Leurolophus (1 species, southern Arizona and Texas, on Rhus virens)
Telmapsylla (1 species, Florida, on Avicennia germinans)
Hemitrioza (1 species, eastern USA, on Lactuca, Sonchus? We have this species on bugguide, let's get it here too)
Levidea (1 species, Arizona, on Parthenum incanum (supposedly))
Neotriozella (3 species, but the most common one in the eastern USA has been reared from Styrax americana. It's probably already on inat but unidentified if i had to guess. Also images on bugguide. But if my california friends are looking for a target and are disappointed by the lack of californian options on this list, there is also a California Neotriozella that has never been photographed yet. Host is unknown, but try looking at Styrax redivivus or maybe a related plant, if I had to guess. Good luck!)

And that's it! The host plant is most likely more important than the listed distribution; for example, the mangrove psyllid Leuronota maritima was observed by James Bailey on mangroves in Texas despite only being recorded from Florida. So if any of these hosts are in your area, definitely worth checking for psyllids. Click a hostplant above to see the inat observation range map for that plant.

Posted on 05 June, 2022 05:50 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 1 comment | Leave a comment

17 May, 2022

Upcoming changes in Psylloidea taxonomy to reflect Burkhardt, Ouvard, & Percy 2021

Several big changes to come into effect including moving around and erecting some new subfamilies and families, synonomizing a few genera and moving a few species to other genera. The changes should make identifications at the generic level easier on iNat as it resolves a few confusing taxon groups such as Euglyptoneura/Ceanothia and Cacopsylla/Purshivora/Psylla in particular, with the new groupings feeling more natural and easier to understand for the general naturalist. Identifiers may want to revisit observations identified to the genus level as Cacopsylla, in particular specimens from the western USA from Cercocarpus and Purshia, as these species have almost all been moved to Purshivora. More changes outlined below, without mention to genera which have been moved to a different subfamily. None of these changes have yet been implemented on iNaturalist, I will attempt to get everything sorted out by the end of the month but any other dedicated curators may feel free to work on this as well.

New taxa
Amorphicolinae subfam. nov.
Katacephalinae subfam. nov.
Microphyllurinae subfam. nov.
Neophyllurinae subfam. nov.
Platycoryphinae subfam. nov.
Hollisiana gen. nov.

New synonymies
Psyllinae Latreille, 1807 = Cornopsyllini Li, 2011, syn. nov.
Ceanothia Heslop-Harrison, 1961= Euglyptoneura Heslop-Harrison, 1961, syn. nov.
Colophorina Capener, 1973 = Otroacizzia† Klimaszewski, 1996, syn. nov.
Lisronia Loginova, 1976 = Pseudotingidiforma Heslop-Harrison, 1952, nomen nudum, syn. nov.
Acizzia Heslop-Harrison, 1961 = Neoacizzia Park & Taylor, 1996b, nomen nudum, syn. nov.
Psylla Geoffroy, 1762 = Baeopelma Enderlein, 1926, syn. nov.
Psylla Geoffroy, 1762 = Chamaepsylla Ossiannilsson, 1970, syn. nov.
Psylla Geoffroy, 1762 = Psylla (Labyrinthopsylla) Ossiannilsson, 1970, syn. nov.
Spanioneura Foerster, 1848 = Asphagidella Enderlein, 1921, syn. nov.

New combinations
Ceanothia fuscipennis (Crawford, 1914) comb. nov. from Arytaina
Ceanothia minuta (Crawford, 1914) comb. nov. from Arytaina
Ceanothia robusta (Crawford, 1914) comb. nov. from Arytaina
Colophorina muta† (Klimaszewski, 1996) comb. nov. from Otroacizzia†
Euryconus prosapia† (Klimaszewski, 1996) comb. nov. from Otroacizzia†
Euryconus soriae† (Peñalver & García-Gimeno, 2006) comb. nov. from Otroacizzia†
Euryconus tertia† (Klimaszewski, 1996) comb. nov. from Otroacizzia†
Hollisiana caradociforma (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988) gen. et comb. nov. from Limbopsylla
Hollisiana nigrivenis (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988) gen. et comb. nov., from Limbopsylla
Microphyllurus longicellus (Tuthill, 1943) comb. nov. from Paurocephala
Purshivora aculeata (Crawford, 1914) comb. nov. from Arytaina
Purshivora acuminata (Jensen, 1956) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora adusta (Tuthill, 1937) comb. nov. from Euphalerus
Purshivora brevistigmata (Patch, 1912) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora cercocarpi (Jensen, 1957) comb. nov. from Euphalerus
Purshivora coryli (Patch, 1912) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora difficilis (Tuthill, 1943) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora hirsuta (Tuthill, 1938) comb. nov. from Arytaina
Purshivora idahoensis (Jensen, 1946) comb. nov. from Euphalerus
Purshivora insignita (Tuthill, 1943) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora magna (Crawford, 1914) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora maculata (Crawford, 1914) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora media (Tuthill, 1943) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora minuta (Crawford, 1914) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora nigranervosa (Jensen, 1956) comb. nov. from Psylla
Purshivora tantilla (Tuthill, 1937) comb. nov. from Euphalerus
Spanioneura chujoi (Miyatake, 1982) comb. nov. from Psylla
Spanioneura morimotoi (Miyatake, 1963) comb. nov. from Psylla
Spanioneura omogoensis (Miyatake, 1963) comb. nov. from Psylla
Spanioneura sanguinea (Provancher, 1872) comb. nov. from Diraphia
Spanioneura ziozankeana (Kuwayama, 1908) comb. nov. from Psylla
Telmapsylla lagunculariae (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988) comb. nov. from Limbopsylla

Revived combinations
Psylla colorata Löw, 1888comb. rev. from Baeopelma
Psylla diloncha (Caldwell, 1938)comb. rev. from Cacopsylla
Psylla foersteri Flor, 1861comb. rev. from Baeopelma
Psylla hartigii Flor, 1861comb. rev. from Chamaepsylla
Psylla striata Patch, 1911comb. rev. from Cacopsylla
Spanioneura buxi (Linnaeus, 1758), comb. rev. from Psylla

Replacement name
Microphyllurus lii, nom. nov. for Microphyllurus longicellus Li, 2002, nec Tuthill (1943a)

New and revived status
Family Mastigimatidae Bekker-Migdisova, 1973, stat. nov.
Subfamily Cecidopsyllinae Li, 2011, stat. rev. et nov.
Subfamily Homotominae Heslop-Harrison, 1958, stat. rev.
Subfamily Phacopteroninae Heslop-Harrison, 1958, stat. nov.
Tribe Ctenarytainini White & Hodkinson, 1985, stat. rev.
Tribe Dynopsyllini Bekker-Migdisova, 1973, stat. rev.
Tribe Homotomini Heslop-Harrison, 1958, stat. rev.
Tribe Macrohomotomini White & Hodkinson, 1985, stat. rev.
Subtribe Diceraopsyllina Hollis & Broomfield, 1989, stat. nov.
Subtribe Dynopsyllina Bekker-Migdisova, 1973, stat. rev.
Subtribe Edenina Bhanotar, Ghosh & Ghosh, 1972, stat. nov.
Subtribe Macrohomotomina White & Hodkinson, 1985, stat. nov.
Subtribe Homotomina Heslop-Harrison, 1958, stat. nov.
Subtribe Phytolymina White & Hodkinson, 1985, stat. nov.
Subtribe Synozina Bekker-Migdisova, 1973, stat. nov.
Indepsylla† Klimaszewski, 1996, stat. rev.
Microphyllurus Li, 2002, stat. rev
Parapsyllopsis† Klimaszewski, 1996,stat. rev.
Paropsylla† Klimaszewski, 1996, stat. rev.
Primascena† Klimaszewski, 1998, stat. rev.

Posted on 17 May, 2022 15:31 by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 comments | Leave a comment