Journal archives for October 2022

01 October, 2022

A new hypothesis for the steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) in the Highveld of South Africa: it was naturally absent

It is easy to assume that the steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) was indigenous to the Highveld (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Highveld) when European explorers arrived.

However, I suggest that it was actually absent.

This would help to explain why its current taxonomic status in the Highveld is so nebulous (https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70638-the-steenbok-raphicerus-campestris-in-the-highveld-a-simple-question-gone-impossibly-complex#).

My argument is based on an ecological rationale, but seems consistent with the historical record.

The steenbok tends to be taken for granted as widespread and ecologically tolerant. However, it is more ecologically specialised than first it seems, in diet and habitats.

This species is part of a guild of relatively small herbivores including

All eat both grasses and dicotyledonous plants, in various combinations according to the seasons (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230164079_The_feeding_ecology_of_a_very_small_ruminant_the_steenbok_Raphicerus_campestris).

Because it has so many competitors, R. campestris may have been somewhat limited in occurrence in prehistoric South Africa, when the full fauna of the Holocene remained.

The Highveld contained by far the most complex fauna of ungulates of any region of treeless grassland on Earth (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629915003051 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282619832_Why_was_the_Highveld_treeless_Looking_laterally_to_the_Pampas_for_global_edaphic_principles_beyond_biogeographical_accidents). This may have precluded a niche for R. campestris under natural conditions.

I suspect that it was only when the fauna was disrupted by human settlement that R. campestris spontaneously entered the Highveld, from the west and north.

The idea is that it filled in for the species virtually exterminated by settlers, particularly the formerly abundant and migratory A. marsupialis.

This is not to claim that R. campestris became abundant in the Highveld, but merely that it became viable there because of, rather than despite, anthropogenic disturbance.

Three subspecies were thus hypothetically recruited to the Highveld, then mixing there through hybridisation. These are R. c. campestris (southwesterly origin), R. c. steinhardti (northwesterly origin), and R. c. capricornis (northeasterly origin).

Another basis for my hypothesis is habitat, particularly the natural availability of cover.

In its original state, the Highveld was treeless over extensive areas, partly owing to the intense natural herbivory. This hypothetically made the grassland too open for R. campestris.

There are two situations, in the Highveld today, with some shrubby indigenous cover, viz.

  • perennial drainage lines, and
  • scattered rocky outcrops.

However,

The settlement of the Highveld has boosted the incidence of woody plants, for various reasons.

I have before me du Plessis S F (1969, The Past and Present Geographical Distribution of the Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla in Southern Africa).

On page 100, du Plessis states for 'Orange Free State':
"Though no doubt occurring everywhere in this province in the past, practically no written records could be traced...Only Smith (Kirby, 1939) in 1835 mentions it as being common near the confluence of the Riet and Modder rivers".

This location (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riet_River) is actually west of Free State province and the Highveld, being located in the current Mokala National Park (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mokala_National_Park).

Much of the Highveld occurs in the former Transvaal (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transvaal_(province)). However, once again du Plessis (1969) largely draws a blank in the historical record.

The exceptions are as follows:

  • "Mauch (Petermann, 1870): north of Lydenburg"
  • "Holub (1881): near the Vaal River in western Transvaal"
  • "Holub (1890): between Bloemhof and Christiana"
  • "Baldwin (1894): the vicinity of Potchefstroom"
  • "Randall (1895): the open flats in the Barberton District."

The relevant locations mentioned are:

All of these are rather marginal to the Highveld, except for Potchefstroom. However, the latter is located in the valley of a major drainage line (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mooi_River_(Vaal)).

On page 103, du Plessis states the incidence, as of 1969, as follows:
"Orange Free State: Van Ee (1962): fairly generally distributed throughout the province with the greatest numbers along the rivers and in the mountainous districts of the east, especially in the Fouriesburg, Tweeling, Petrus Steyn, Boshoff, Theunissen, Brandfort, Hoopstad and Koffiefontein districts. Roberts (1963): 45 in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve".

The status in Transvaal (page 104) was similarly widespread, as of 1969.

So, dear readers, please prove me wrong in my suggestion that the steenbok was naturally absent from the Highveld, including virtually the whole of what is now Free State.

One way to do so might be to consult a work to which I currently lack access. This is by Skead (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CJ_Skead), covering that part of the Highveld falling within the Eastern Cape (https://ace.mandela.ac.za/Historical-Incidence-of-the-Larger-Mammals/Authors/The-works-of-Cuthbert-John-(Jack)-Skead),

In the meantime, the following is a compendium of all the current photos of R. campestris, located in the Highveld, in iNaturalist:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/129166689
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/105216875
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/108317173
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/69266940
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/127743228
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/127670769
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/98953074
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/130857789

Only four of the above observations show the animals clearly.

Also see https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70638-the-steenbok-raphicerus-campestris-in-the-highveld-a-simple-question-gone-impossibly-complex#.

Posted on 01 October, 2022 06:54 by milewski milewski | 6 comments | Leave a comment

02 October, 2022

Selected views of the bambi genus Madoqua, plus noteworthy photos mislabelled as dik-diks on the Web

MADOQUA DAMARENSIS

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72199054

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/11220482

https://stock.adobe.com/images/a-female-kirk-s-dik-dik-antelope-smallest-in-the-world-standing-in-the-bush-etosha-national-park-in-nambia-africa/138389109?prev_url=detail

showing anomalous whitish at knee
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/92816759

https://stock.adobe.com/images/kirk-s-dik-dik/11627412?prev_url=detail

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/Damara_Dik-Dik.JPG

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=77363734

https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/873025/view/damara-dik-dik

https://ekujasafari.com/hunting-darma-dik-dik-namibia/

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=60051921

cavendishi? https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=280950356

MADOQUA KIRKII East Africa

kirkii
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=dikdik&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=3&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=401342106

cavendishi
https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/dik-dik-is-a-small-antelope-royalty-free-image/520027099?adppopup=true

https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/cute-little-dik-dik-antelope-making-funny-face-in-royalty-free-image/1176116863?adppopup=true

https://stock.adobe.com/images/dik-dik/28620223?prev_url=detail

https://stock.adobe.com/images/small-antelope-in-the-bush-on-safari-in-kenya/132504921?prev_url=detail

https://stock.adobe.com/images/a-dik-dik-a-small-antelope-in-africa-lake-manyara-national-par/76987496?prev_url=detail

https://www.jungledragon.com/image/116371/dik-dik_antelope.html/zoom

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-kirks-dikdik-female-portrait-side-side-to-camera-just-inches-high-shoulder-second-smallest-image83518357

https://stock.adobe.com/images/young-african-thompson-s-gazelle-in-serengeti-national-park-tanzania/312477243?prev_url=detail

https://www.vecteezy.com/photo/844782-kirk-s-dik-dik-madoqua-kirkii-damara-dikdik-kirk-dik

https://naturerules1.fandom.com/wiki/Kirk%27s_Dik-dik?file=96bf2c9bad44e82e8bc041c27497e5d9.jpg

https://wildlifesafari.info/kirks_dikdik.html

https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/kirk-s-dikdik-kirk-s-dik-dik-damara-dik-dik-madoqua-kirkii-pair-in-its-habitat-kenya-samburu-national-reserve/BWI-BS371737

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=357153060

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=46502141

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=245343557

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=315354748

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=464916173

cavendishi
https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=437570754

cavendishi
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=dikdik&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=3&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=311845908

https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=dikdik&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=2&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=405151508

kirkii
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=dikdik&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=2&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=139409377

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=308981505 and https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=308981470

https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=dikdik&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=2&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=370598519

MADOQUA SALTIANA

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Salts_Dikdik.jpg

MADOQUA GUENTHERI

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=64450247

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=94546206

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Adult-female-Guenthers-dik-dik-Madoqua-guentheri-guentheri-Garissa-central-east_fig7_319302047

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=464916125

https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/madoqua-guentheri-royalty-free-image/134231011?adppopup=true

Posted on 02 October, 2022 23:16 by milewski milewski | 26 comments | Leave a comment

03 October, 2022

An attempted photo-guide to the subspecies of the steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is partly a self-refuting exercise

@tonyrebelo @jeremygilmore @ludwig_muller @capracornelius @simontonge @tandala @geichhorn @michalsloviak @colin25 @alanhorstmann @jakob @jwidness @dejong @davidbygott @koosretief @gigilaidler

Today, I set out to illustrate - in the spirit of a field guide-book - the various subspecies of the steenbuck (Raphicerus campestris, https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42375-Raphicerus-campestris).

I was only partly successful, and this was not because of a lack of photos on the Web

Something important to realise, which has not emerged in the literature, is the following.

The northern subspecies (https://www.awl-images.com/stock-photo-kenya-taita-taveta-county-tsavo-east-national-park-a-steinbuck-image00398991.html) is only slightly different from the subspecies found in eastern South Africa (https://www.alamy.com/steenbok-raphicerus-campestris-adult-female-standing-on-the-ground-mpumalanga-south-africa-image384329875.html).

This is despite a wide geographical disjunction and the associated reproductive isolation.

It is instead the southernmost subspecies, living in a temperate zone, that is recognisable in photos.

What this means is that only two subspecies can be claimed with confidence, viz.

  • nominate campestris, and
  • neumanni, in a broadened sense.

The remaining subspecies (capricornis and steinhardti) are recognised mainly because of an assumption that their own wide geographical and climatic spread, from the edge of the Namib desert to the edge of miombo woodland in Zimbabwe, must surely be reflected in subspeciation.

It remains possible that even the adaptation to aridity within this species is (https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-steenbok-raphicerus-campestris-desert-rhino-camp-damaraland-namibia-91113533.html?imageid=222AA12F-6CFE-4847-893B-A221FB5DEA88&p=71799&pn=2&searchId=61806f9903717abe80887586aa50fbc7&searchtype=0) is merely a matter of ecotypes, rather than a matter of subspeciation.

Another important point is that there is enough individual variation in the steenbok to blur any subspecies-distinctions.

The result:

The distinctions among neumanni, capricornis, and steinhardti are so slight that I have found it hard to compile any 'typical' photos of them, in which the subspecific differences are self-evident.

The following is my best attempt, after sifting through thousands of photos.

RAPHICERUS CAMPESTRIS CAMPESTRIS

Western Cape and adjacent parts of Northern Cape and Eastern Cape, South Africa

ground-colour dark

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/98597843

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78046023

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/52877690

forehead rich-hued

https://stock.adobe.com/ro/images/big-ears/441156073?prev_url=detail

white features (except for buttocks) minimal, particularly on face and inner upper hindleg

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/cape-grysbok-184337792

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/grysbok-cape-gm1134456769-301460055?phrase=grysbok

RAPHICERUS CAMPESTRIS STEINHARDTI

southern Angola, most of Botswana, Namibia except for eastern Caprivi, part of Northern Cape of South Africa

ground colour pale

https://www.alamy.com/steinbuck-raphicerus-campestris-hoanib-river-namibia-image61349728.html?imageid=205095BC-DD65-4197-BB81-B5D2B32724DD&p=191343&pn=1&searchId=30e86c64bd74ac276119489cea99aea1&searchtype=0

size of ear pinnae maximal

https://stock.adobe.com/ro/video/close-up-from-a-steenbok-resting-at-the-hoanib-riverbed-in-namibia/322384062?prev_url=detail

radial gland noticeable

https://stock.adobe.com/ro/images/cute-steenbok-on-alert-in-front-of-tree-in-etosha-national-park/404356409?prev_url=detail

RAPHICERUS CAMPESTRIS CAPRICORNIS

Mpumalanga, Limpopo, northeastern Kwazulu-Natal, eSwatini, southern Mozambique, Zimbabwe, eastern Caprivi of Namibia, eastern and northeastern Botswana, southwestern Zambia

forehead rich-hued

https://stock.adobe.com/ro/images/male-steenbok-raphicerus-campestris-in-orange-morning-light/313363014?prev_url=detail

https://www.alamy.com/steenbok-raphicerus-campestris-kruger-national-park-south-africa-image237971244.html?imageid=0B54B740-4FC0-4227-931B-0B0098D4D6CD&p=22059&pn=1&searchId=3309ba2d8d68889a061642cd2d5bc830&searchtype=0

size of ear pinnae minimal

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-steenbok-raphicerus-campestris-in-a-dry-meadow-south-africa-krueger-76132016.html

radial gland noticeable

https://stock.adobe.com/ro/images/steinbockchen-kruger-national-park-sudafrika/226378977?prev_url=detail

https://stock.adobe.com/ro/images/steenbok-mammal-of-the-kruger-national-park-reserves-and-parks-of-south-africa/273120689?prev_url=detail

RAPHICERUS CAMPESTRIS NEUMANNI

Kenya, Tanzania

Despite the geographical isolation of the East African part of the species-distribution, I have failed to find any consistent difference between this supposed subspecies and capricornis.

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/135970683

https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/dik-dik-in-the-serengeti-tanzania-east-africa-royalty-free-image/1203979753?adppopup=true

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/94106167

Posted on 03 October, 2022 16:22 by milewski milewski | 7 comments | Leave a comment

05 October, 2022

White on the buttocks: a previously overlooked species-difference in dikdiks of the Madoqua kirkii-Madoqua damarensis complex?

@dejong @tbutynski

In recent Posts, I have shown previously overlooked variation among the species/subspecies in two genera of bambis, namely Ourebia (https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70050-the-three-main-types-of-oribi-ourebia-at-a-glance#) and Raphicerus (https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70293-the-bambis-part-9-bleezes-flags-and-semets-in-the-bovid-genus-raphicerus#).

I now turn to another genus of bambis, namely Madoqua (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=any&taxon_id=42358&view=species).

The species and subspecies of Madoqua may seem too taxonomically complicated for many naturalists to disentangle.

De Jong and Butynski (2017, https://www.lolldaiga.com/wp-content/uploads/De-Jong-Butynski-2017-Madoqua-E-Africa.pdf) have greatly clarified the distinctions among various forms in the kirkii-complex and superficially similar Madoqua guentheri.

However, they seem to have overlooked what is perhaps major variation in adaptive colouration among the species and subspecies in this geographically bewildering set of taxa.

I refer to the incidence, extent, and flaring of whitish pelage on the buttocks - which in some taxa is displayed to potential predators.

What I have noticed, after perusing hundreds of photos, is that there is a range of apparency of white on the hindquarters, as follows:

  • maximal in M. guentheri, minimal in M. damarensis (restricted to southern Africa), and intermediate in the kirkii-complex of East Africa, and
  • within the kirkii-complex: maximal in nominate kirkii and hindei, vs minimal in thomasi and cavendishi.

In M. guentheri, there is a well-developed, white buttock flag (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/85335207). This is normally folded out of sight, but is activated in alarm.

In M. damarensis, there no buttock flag. Furthermore, whitish pelage is absent from the buttocks, being restricted to the inner surface of the uppermost hindleg, where it is obscured from view (https://www.alamy.com/damara-dik-dik-on-arid-landscape-image265477351.html?imageid=9918B4C6-E7A2-4558-A9A9-8A4C5986763B&p=925654&pn=2&searchId=812e1b51f3bb17a7cc79ddae25b30690&searchtype=0), even when the animal flees.

In thomasi and cavendishi, the white pelage on the inner upper hindleg hardly reaches the inner surface of the buttock (cavendishi: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/35760408 ; cavendishi/thomasi: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19457512).

Instead, there is a darkened effect, owing to the grey, grizzled pelage on the inner buttock being viewed from a certain angle (also see https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/16658138 and https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-damara-dik-dik-antelope-in-tarangire-national-park-tanzania-125863282.html?imageid=D2243709-A771-41B3-8555-80339AB1FF98&p=149870&pn=1&searchId=a091ff7a0a8c31eef18a8931488c16a4&searchtype=0).

In nominate kirkii and (to a lesser extent?) hindei, considerable whitish is normally apparent on the buttocks. It remains unknown whether this can be activated by piloerection.

What emerges is that, w.r.t. the colouration of the buttocks, the southern and western forms of the kirkii-complex in East Africa may be more similar to the widely disjunct damarensis of southern Africa than they are to nearby kirkii, the nominate, northeasternmost form.

This raises the possibility that there are two species, one of them extremely disjunct - in a biogeographic parallel to sympatric Raphicerus campestris, which also shows wide disjunction between southern and East Africa.

These would be

If so, the basic geographical feature separating the two spp. would be the eastern arm of the Great African Rift (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Rift_Valley#/media/File:Great_Rift_Valley.png), from Lake Turkana (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Turkana) in the north to Lake Manyara (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Manyara) in the south.

Such geographical separation would be analogous with that previously recognised between

  • Connochaetes albojubatus and Connochaetes mearnsi, and
  • Kobus ellipsiprymnus and Kobus defassa.

The following show the buttock flag in Madoqua guentheri:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/108449533
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/109570355.

The following shows that there is no analogous flag in cavendishi/thomasi:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34632953.

GUENTHERI

Many photos of M. guentheri show a whitish horizontal mark on the hindquarters (just below the small tail), which I have never seen in any other species in the genus:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/44891973

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/48668687

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/92503134

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/46592563

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/42815125

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/34171472

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/10498051

This indicates a fur-fold which opens out into a broad, white, buttock flag.

This resembles the buttocks in Raphicerus campestris (https://dewetswild.com/tag/steenbok/#jp-carousel-37747). However, it is more pronounced, with a more complex, origami-like unfolding - both vertically and horizontally - of panels of pelage.

KIRKII (nominate)

The following show that there is more extensive white on the hindquarters than in damarensis.

This white pelage is visible without any particular activation, partly because the panel of grizzled, grey pelage of the outer buttock is shorter than in damarensis, thomasi, and cavendishi.

The adaptive colouration thus seems to confirm that damarensis is a different species from nominate kirkii, and not merely a subspecies.

second photo in https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/130962038

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104469910

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104465769

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/56610068

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/127865878

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/6998029

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19215378

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-dik-dik-in-the-kenyan-savanna-92694497.html?imageid=D085B884-1918-469D-90A0-4757E0777A4A&p=277251&pn=1&searchId=a091ff7a0a8c31eef18a8931488c16a4&searchtype=0

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54460753

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104983315

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/53348887

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36294376

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/135184955

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66263881

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982491

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66064513

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982477

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982469

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66101649

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982481

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982488

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982474

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982464

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/94054422

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/94037750

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54885436

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67329073

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/43545138

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/57490463

The following shows that the whitish on the buttocks can be seen at some distance:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67328340

The following is the only photo of nominate kirkii, in posteriolateral view, that could be confused with damarensis on the basis of the colouration of the hindquarters: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104982462.

HINDEI

The following show that considerably more white is visible on the hindquarters than in damarensis. This seems, at least partly, because the pelage of the outer buttock is shorter than that of damarensis.

Whether this qualifies as a buttock flag remains unclear, because this would depend on

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/93574203

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/106353312

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/69253350

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/65705924

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104985979

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88356487

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38088841

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/49698957

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9839405

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/120567853

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/106400612

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/136176636

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/132019130

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/106400622

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7094056

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104985978

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/103589197

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/63258767

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68337080

The following, at the lower Tana River in eastern Kenya, do not show any white on the buttocks:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8035356
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8035355.

CAVENDISHI

The following show that, if white is more evident on the hindquarters of cavendishi than on those of damarensis, the difference is slight.

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/102103762

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/121609294

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/121987458

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/28289382

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/130009932

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/126027728

https://www.alamy.com/dik-dik-at-serengeti-national-park-tanzania-it-is-standing-next-to-a-cabin-at-serengeti-serena-lodge-image229026902.html?imageid=F97CE3DF-A3FE-4CD8-AFAF-78F527703883&p=147085&pn=1&searchId=a091ff7a0a8c31eef18a8931488c16a4&searchtype=0

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54027328

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/108501982

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/108373392

https://www.alamy.com/kirks-dik-dik-is-a-small-antelope-native-to-eastern-africa-and-one-of-four-species-of-dik-dik-antelope-image348585446.html?imageid=55F02CD5-CE20-4865-8289-4C8CA506FED5&p=432935&pn=2&searchId=812e1b51f3bb17a7cc79ddae25b30690&searchtype=0

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/107139654

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/107139648

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/105392544

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/103901346

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/95525881

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/85640172

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68957254

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/31994682

The following individual shows the maximum extent of whitish on the buttocks:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/43172082.

THOMASI

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21312691

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7812390

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/764507

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/61868136

The following does show some white on the buttocks:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15041808.

INTERGRADATIONAL between cavendishi and thomasi, in Tarangire and Lake Manyara National Parks, Tanzania:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19944469
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/103939955
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/135088492
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/1818614
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/864173
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/105631501
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/27609142
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104807392
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/128035858
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/102033238
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/97421799
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/93832001
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/90118758

The following, in Arusha National Park, look like thomasi rather than hindei:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/67200531
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8708916.

DAMARENSIS

The following show that the occurrence of whitish on the hindquarters is limited to the inner surface of the upper hindleg, with hardly any sign of any extension on to the buttocks.

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/41807012

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37693539

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/86033865

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/99881333

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37625508

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9704334

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/52150014

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/39830600

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14293979

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/128717848

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14702761

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/25626334

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/33784213

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/107650742

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/90441472

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/85993599

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/85739109

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/83787773

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/33126151

Second photo in https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74072495

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/65453512

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/59859034

tail raised, revealing the black bare skin around anus:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66833293

The following does show some white:
https://www.alamy.com/a-damara-dik-dik-or-kirks-dik-dik-maquoda-kirkii-in-grass-during-the-wet-season-at-erindi-reserve-in-erongo-region-namibia-image367603484.html?imageid=BE2F0F65-D863-4D63-B019-455BE8C48547&p=767630&pn=1&searchId=a091ff7a0a8c31eef18a8931488c16a4&searchtype=0.

Posted on 05 October, 2022 01:53 by milewski milewski | 8 comments | Leave a comment

Summary of my recent observations: diagnostically pale features on the hindquarters of bovid bambis (Ourebia, Raphicerus, and Madoqua)

@joni_overbosch @beartracker @davidbygott @tonyrebelo @ludwig_muller @jeremygilmore @tandala @dejong @michalsloviak @oviscanadensis_connerties @capracornelius @tbutynski @zarek @simontonge @jwidness @johnnybirder @calebcam @jakob @henrydelange @wasinitourguide @geichhorn @paradoxornithidae @jacqueline_llerena @koosretief @justinhawthorne @happyasacupcake @marcelo_aranda @enricotosto96 @diegoalmendras @michaelweymann @fionahellmann

See:
https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70050-the-three-main-types-of-oribi-ourebia-at-a-glance#
https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70823-white-on-the-buttocks-a-previously-overlooked-species-difference-in-dikdiks-of-the-madoqua-kirkii-madoqua-damarensis-complex#
https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70293-the-bambis-part-9-bleezes-flags-and-semets-in-the-bovid-genus-raphicerus#
https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/70368-a-new-feature-of-adaptive-colouration-in-ungulates-the-fibular-flag#

The following aspects of adaptive colouration have previously been overlooked. They may additionally be diagnostic, taxonomically.

OUREBIA

Ourebia ourebi differs from Ourebia montana in possessing a bleeze on the hindquarters.

RAPHICERUS

Raphicerus campestris campestris exceeds all other subspecies in the degree of development of a buttock flag.

MADOQUA

Madoqua damarensis differs from Madoqua kirkii in lacking white on the buttocks.

Madoqua kirkii/hindei differs from Madoqua thomasi/cavendishi in possessing white on the buttocks.

ILLUSTRATIONS

I have selected the following to illustrate the diagnostic features mentioned above.

OUREBIA

Presence of bleeze on hindquarters in Ourebia ourebi:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/98375681

Absence of bleeze on hindquarters in Ourebia montana:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/33557962

RAPHICERUS

Well-developed buttock flag in Raphicerus campestris campestris: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/85907385 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/126223294 and https://www.alamy.com/a-male-cape-or-southern-grysbok-raphicerus-melanotis-running-through-the-veld-in-the-boland-region-of-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa-image187402642.html?imageid=8D98430A-FCFE-41F4-AA29-B6B781700C2F&p=77702&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

Relatively poorly-developed buttock flag in other sspp. of Raphicerus campestris: https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/steenbok-in-kruger-national-park-gm1419290036-465690019?phrase=steenbok and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/13490802 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/72501302

Fibular flag in:

Raphicerus melanotis https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/26439871

Raphicerus sharpei https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image472245952.html?imageid=24DA2C60-EA7B-4F14-B34E-F2A79E3BBEDC&p=816330&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

MADOQUA

Absence of white on buttocks in:

damarensis https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/1818615

thomasi/cavendishi https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=dikdik&asset_id=71439139

Presence of white on buttocks in:

kirkii/hindei https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Kirk%27s_Dik-dik_%28Madoqua_kirkii_kirkii%29_%287662454204%29.jpg and https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/cute-little-dik-dik-antelope-making-funny-face-in-royalty-free-image/1176116863?adppopup=true and https://focusedcollection.com/199893414/stock-photo-beautiful-kirks-dik-dik-madoqua.html and https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=dikdik&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=3&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=401342106

Posted on 05 October, 2022 17:06 by milewski milewski | 33 comments | Leave a comment

06 October, 2022

Compendium of photos of Raphicerus sharpei on the Web, part 1

Raphicerus sharpei is among the most obscure species of antelopes in the national parks of southern Africa, being scarce, small, cryptic in colouration, timid, non-gregarious, and nocturnal.

Therefore, nobody would be surprised to find that few photos of this species have been posted on the Web.

The reality is surprising: there are so many photos available that it is hard to Post them all.

The following is a compendium of all the photos of R. sharpei that I can currently find, excluding those on iNaturalist.

Collectively, they provide excellent documentation of the appearance of this species.

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-31791328.html?imageid=8258088A-BE1C-47D2-B568-B4E03D47F25D&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-in-the-bush-kruger-national-park-south-africa-23221448.html?imageid=959EB4AA-EFBF-44AA-BF35-6D709A1E6E88&p=504&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-male-38523323.html?imageid=DDD8E276-1E5D-4804-83BB-4BE59B23AB3B&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe39s-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-looking-over-its-shoulder-kruger-national-park-south-africa-image263060688.html?imageid=C98A13B4-298B-4BBA-914E-67AD860C051F&p=215386&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-or-northern-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-kruger-national-park-48784096.html?imageid=58B0A733-2D3A-4621-977F-4BBC3FB4476C&p=165079&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-northern-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-170826004.html?imageid=FAF9CC66-2417-4511-9AD2-7292065A6633&p=178601&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-south-africa-mpumalanga-kruger-national-park-image255383147.html?imageid=B2DB3495-B84D-45B8-93F0-CADC61B7296C&p=853443&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-or-northern-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-is-a-small-shy-solitary-24803543.html?imageid=4065DF58-EC00-4983-BFE8-BA4F6696454F&p=76135&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-kruger-national-park-south-africa-25912072.html?imageid=90E236B0-6EFB-4A4F-AFF4-96768969C3BF&p=74587&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-kruger-national-park-republic-of-133874593.html?imageid=6A10C0F6-78E4-4C83-AFAB-A0B7A5E70A37&p=60598&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-sharpes-grysbok-female-raphicerus-sharpie-in-a-small-clearing-in-the-north-of-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa-image351444291.html?imageid=4B9513D6-EF47-4687-A709-FE898011E63D&p=854996&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-sharpes-grysbok-in-southern-african-savanna-image228006654.html?imageid=AFB623A6-0296-4831-9453-CD38BA314E2E&p=291902&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-close-up-of-adult-female-eating-kruger-np-south-africa-november-image403021031.html?imageid=C45199E8-B016-4830-95BC-A1E0F52A3639&p=353981&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image223107439.html?imageid=E4FA7F47-40DD-4A8B-A643-0606296266DD&p=272677&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-or-northern-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-standing-in-a-clearing-south-luangwa-zambia-september-image357437508.html?imageid=66AB4F64-D99A-45DA-A28A-24F3100000DE&p=477095&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/male-sharpes-grysbok-aka-northern-grysbok-resting-in-a-tree-hollow-nanzhila-plains-kafue-national-park-zambia-africa-image354788369.html?imageid=D3EA6457-6307-462A-B9C5-42E5C1B58FE0&p=135160&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grijsbok-sharpes-grysbok-image211598304.html?imageid=C6FDDA0F-C8EC-4C62-936C-0848F0F4239B&p=648151&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-male-38523272.html?imageid=866F170A-B1BA-4309-8893-CEDCCD85D924&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-in-savannah-southern-africa-image345143252.html?imageid=CB322310-917F-420D-8E84-A237E0CC3491&p=703420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/female-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-hwange-national-park-zimbabwe-africa-image6900536.html?imageid=9D6C3921-40EC-4FAF-B76C-3D9C96B9758E&p=6945&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-portrait-of-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-in-the-bush-the-photo-33096574.html?imageid=097746CA-48F5-40A6-8578-BFE7EBA82631&p=60598&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-northern-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-170825999.html?imageid=3B57B8D7-6A87-4B01-8798-3EA867BC71EE&p=178601&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-portrait-of-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-in-the-bush-the-photo-33096566.html?imageid=45F45224-33EF-42D1-BE9B-A0447082D0A6&p=60598&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-sharpes-grysbok-ram-raphicerus-sharpei-between-grass-image259517032.html?imageid=585A9DCB-A41C-430B-862C-7007380BA0BE&p=183973&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-leopard-with-sharpes-grysbok-as-prey-kruger-national-park-south-africa-82599825.html?imageid=90CED888-D7A1-4FB6-84D2-66DD322CBFF2&p=154309&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-sharpes-grysbok-ram-raphicerus-sharpei-walking-in-the-last-rays-of-the-sun-image257153085.html?imageid=FA0F22B4-BB1E-413D-B651-CF10668023E2&p=183973&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-south-africa-kruger-np-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-87629019.html?imageid=8CC9BFE0-39F6-42E0-98E0-B86D10F2CE9D&p=82922&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-close-up-of-adult-female-eating-kruger-np-south-africa-november-image403019119.html?imageid=9092F949-32CA-4C87-BCE4-57BAC17DA6A3&p=353981&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image223107232.html?imageid=BC5BAFD2-363F-415B-BD1D-8D394A06547E&p=272677&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-kruger-national-park-south-africa-125417402.html?imageid=A8C3173F-F1E9-401E-A474-2353B00312AB&p=361664&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-male-in-sideview-standing-in-grass-29387287.html?imageid=41B21830-AA2E-4B9B-BDA8-09F2DE6E14A1&p=83904&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-male-browsing-38523193.html?imageid=0CDA66D7-2CCA-4F80-A3DD-FAD430B1E4FC&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-young-ram-sharpes-grysbok-18765047.html?imageid=FDAAC60B-0A28-4885-A34A-54A43EC7B51A&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-male-adult-south-africa-mpumalanga-161763316.html?imageid=6332CFDE-0830-42B2-8ED6-8113A09A06AE&p=546796&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-male-raphicerus-sharpei-image7595773.html?imageid=3DB8E4AD-7DF8-47CD-BACB-D65F8B8D0C92&p=872561&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-south-africa-image585668.html?imageid=D626D9E0-B6DB-468B-8D65-0500EC91CC0A&p=4830&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-sharpes-grysbok-in-southern-african-savanna-image228006510.html?imageid=61C7CC1B-1E30-4577-BF33-AEF89C4A1C02&p=291902&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

Posted on 06 October, 2022 00:54 by milewski milewski | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Compendium of photos of Raphicerus sharpei on the Web, part 2

https://www.redbubble.com/people/mags/works/12723988-the-tiny-shy-sharpe-s-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpie

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-kruger-national-park-south-africa-image417606985.html?imageid=95CC0832-BA75-4B22-82BC-B33671D25D3B&p=12455&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

SERIES OF PHOTOS https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-leopard-with-sharpes-grysbok-as-prey-kruger-national-park-south-africa-82599297.html?imageid=729AAA22-AC8A-47AE-A4E1-713F3A565942&p=154309&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-browsing-on-leaves-small-horns-are-visible-image272672274.html?imageid=40B2B23E-F702-4F33-81BB-782746766267&p=183973&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-under-thorn-bush-kruger-national-26229882.html?imageid=751AB837-C2AA-42E7-8D25-DC3864AE385C&p=80871&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-close-up-of-adult-female-eating-kruger-np-south-africa-november-image403020009.html?imageid=1F6FB349-07A2-41EE-AE38-ADE1718FC4BC&p=353981&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image223107294.html?imageid=384F2A07-726F-42E6-B9F4-7C5110E45187&p=272677&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image222080726.html?imageid=FCAA4545-A40E-4899-80F1-9A6ADD16D62F&p=272677&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-antelope-raphicerus-sharpei-bovidae-male-in-mopane-36820660.html?imageid=9C9CA026-3B2D-4956-9F76-461A08C94B53&p=26096&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-young-ram-sharpes-grysbok-18765044.html?imageid=8BCF107E-8FFD-4F25-8435-D80982FCE5B1&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-adult-female-south-africa-mpumalanga-161763311.html?imageid=0EA69069-B7C5-485E-8FA7-A8DDD8872736&p=546796&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-ewe-olifants-river-area-kruger-national-park-south-africa-image332556771.html?imageid=C24377CE-F316-4FDA-9C38-E7A48907DB33&p=11592&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-gonarezhou-np-72719480.html?imageid=F4DFCC31-FCF9-4B3F-8F2D-3E111695793A&p=20852&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image472245943.html?imageid=E832600B-A990-4376-8934-0CEB4853364E&p=816330&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/a-sharpes-grysbok-in-southern-african-savanna-image228006577.html?imageid=1DC00D33-ACFA-4A14-93E6-62F95F731BF3&p=291902&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-under-thorn-bush-kruger-national-26229900.html?imageid=2396446B-7BC2-4FFC-914B-C783BC32B836&p=80871&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image222080748.html?imageid=F6032B27-2C94-4823-908B-9A42E2F9DAB1&p=272677&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-animal-africa-antelope-legs-travel-park-holiday-vacation-holidays-131337287.html?imageid=0EC8F277-7F1A-4B48-AD0A-2E5D38B92D12&p=334009&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-young-ram-sharpes-grysbok-18765046.html?imageid=35B09985-E351-4010-882C-2274A3B568F6&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-portrait-of-a-female-sharpes-grysbok-listening-for-sounds-behind-31803109.html?imageid=CC5943BA-B3AE-4BBE-8A53-85EFB5D9CEE0&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-15381930.html?imageid=33790596-56E9-4CAA-9B46-D6C2C96FB0CF&p=34420&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image430863604.html?imageid=E54E2B31-9388-4C2D-B2E6-48CFE1838911&p=816330&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-adult-female-close-up-of-head-kruger-96170471.html?imageid=6588F721-F2A9-4A79-98A5-ED358D91BDB0&p=11592&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image222080770.html?imageid=F537D7CB-800C-4AE2-85D3-DC05A245D266&p=272677&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-gonarezhou-np-72719515.html?imageid=7C64580F-4223-47AC-AF77-51D0C57F7A49&p=20852&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-adult-female-close-up-of-head-feeding-96170472.html?imageid=DCB59ED5-071E-40D6-B706-E537F3D0C986&p=11592&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image222080736.html?imageid=EF074313-7972-4224-9521-79B422516F03&p=272677&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-gonarezhou-np-72719497.html?imageid=6A93D0FD-859E-49CC-B417-6B88550B17EB&p=20852&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image472245951.html?imageid=AEAF3026-7C8F-4E5E-96E1-1B6BFCFAB5FC&p=816330&pn=1&searchId=886c6fde8e008fc7cc881b5daa323fb1&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-grysbok-in-kruger-national-park-south-africa-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-image222080715.html?imageid=E58C64AB-804B-46CF-81F5-B5F545609044&p=272677&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-gonarezhou-np-72719541.html?imageid=010E7953-4D79-4C6D-9FCE-A85C833667BB&p=20852&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sharpes-grysbock-specie-raphicerus-sharpei-family-of-bovidae-91042701.html?imageid=3164701B-F46C-4889-AD6C-E405BD32619A&p=272677&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image450176848.html?imageid=7E279C65-42FC-4506-A6DF-155CF187FD6E&p=816330&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image450196620.html?imageid=590A2543-087D-455A-89D5-F7EB9DA026D5&p=816330&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image472245952.html?imageid=24DA2C60-EA7B-4F14-B34E-F2A79E3BBEDC&p=816330&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/sharpe-greisbock-sharpes-grysbok-raphicerus-sharpei-image472245947.html?imageid=1245A624-7A58-4C86-9D11-11BBEE3E39D8&p=816330&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

SERIES OF PHOTOS https://www.alamy.com/african-wild-dog-lycaon-pictus-in-the-rain-with-prey-in-the-mouth-south-africa-kruger-national-park-image184170698.html?imageid=A7D6338A-B773-4F87-A9F3-5FFA0DD4CC92&p=703653&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/africa-animals-wildlife-nature-image386128014.html?imageid=EFCC43CB-4122-4C76-AAB8-DBDAAA55CFAB&p=816330&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/africa-animals-wildlife-nature-image386127976.html?imageid=C6C48903-3577-45D8-8B34-962EF2A54C71&p=816330&pn=2&searchId=af8819bea96e326f93bb920f1fcf11fc&searchtype=0

Scroll in https://brendanryanbirds.com/the-little-guys/

Scroll in https://andersen.co.za/mammals/#mammals_p|2

Scroll in https://andersen.co.za/mammals/#mammals_p%7C2

https://www.deviantart.com/paddy16/art/Sharpe-s-grysbok-KNP-South-Africa-763380602

https://animalia.bio/sharpes-grysbok

Posted on 06 October, 2022 01:25 by milewski milewski | 1 comment | Leave a comment

07 October, 2022

Introducing the ocular flag, a feature of adaptive colouration epitomised by dik-diks in the Madoqua kirkii/damarensis complex

@tonyrebelo @ludwig_muller @jeremygilmore @tandala @capracornelius @oviscanadensis_connerties @geichhorn @paradoxornithidae @koosretief @botswanabugs @jacqueline_llerena @zarek @dejong @tbutynski @davidbygott @diegoalmendras @michaelweymann @grinnin @beartracker

It is unsurprising that dik-diks, in the Madoqua kirkii/damarensis complex (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42360-Madoqua-kirkii), have inconspicuous colouration, overall.

However, what is puzzling is that the eyes do not conform to this pattern.

The dark of the eyeball, eyelids, and antorbital gland are accentuated by a ring of pale pelage, making the eyes conspicuous.

https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=dikdik&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=4&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=357094861

https://www.yourafricansafari.com/media/images/photos/2022/09/03/P1090468.JPG

https://www.alamy.com/dikdik-image154260761.html?imageid=3D6DB9B6-DA82-4546-B9D2-310D6D16D008&p=471322&pn=1&searchId=9d24468379105dc9d49ba2ff555a693e&searchtype=0

https://www.kevindowie.com/dik-dik-antelope-tarangire-national-park-tanzania/

https://www.flickr.com/photos/92655181@N07/51360475496

https://zooinstitutes.com/animals/kirks-dik-dik-zoological-center-tel-aviv-ramat-gan-11376.html

https://www.mindenpictures.com/search/naturephotos/silver+dik-dik.html

https://www.mediastorehouse.com/auscape/photographer-galleries/joe-mcdonald/kirks-dik-dik-madoqua-kirkii-20121496.html#openModal

Infant: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNmGqcGd-cI

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/57795/9-fun-facts-about-dik-dik

How can this anomaly be explained?

I hypothesise that the conspicuous pattern of dark/pale contrast at the eye qualifies as an OCULAR FLAG.

This would function as:

  • an announcement to potential predators that they have been spotted, and
  • a means of intraspecific communication, allowing mates and offspring to maintain visual contact in dim or dappled light.

This flag is hypothetically activated by

  • the utterance of an alarm-whistle, and
  • motion of the head, including while walking routinely during foraging.

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST WITH RAPHICERUS SHARPEI

The Madoqua kirkii/damarensis complex is comparable with Raphicerus sharpei, but the two seem to have functionally opposite patterns of colouration at the eyes.

The distribution of Raphicerus sharpei (https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Raphicerus_sharpei.png) fills in for the disjunct distribution between M. damarensis damarensis (Namibia and Angola) and the other members of the complex (East Africa, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Madoqua_kirkii_map.png).

The similarities include:

  • habitat consisting of 'leafless thickets', tending to be associated with stony ground at the base of rocky outcrops,
  • average body mass falling within the range 5-7.5 kg,
  • colouration that is cryptic overall, partly by virtue of a grizzled effect, and
  • hindquarters that lack any buttock flag or conspicuous tail.

However, a difference is that the eye is accentuated in Madoqua, whereas it is masked in R. sharpei.

The following show the darkness around the eyes in R. sharpei:

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/grysbok-antelope-seen-on-safari-south-1932461939
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7702585
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/652733
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/61650836
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9748595

Please note that both Kingdon (https://www.researchgate.net/figure/fig1_311546836) and Dandelot (https://ibs.bialowieza.pl/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/KERLEY.pdf) have misportrayed this aspect of R. sharpei. They fail to show the typical masking of the eyes in this species.

My explanation of this difference between the Madoqua kirkii/damarensis complex and R. sharpei:

There is greater sociality in the former than in the latter.

In both cases, there is a monogamous pair-bond. However, R. sharpei is one of the most solitary of all antelopes in savanna biomes, whereas dik-diks retain obvious social behavior.

Of the 120 observations of R. sharpei currently posted in iNaturalist, none shows more than one individual. By contrast, in the case of Madoqua damarensis, the corresponding value is 7% (13 of the 187 observations).

ANTI-PREDATOR REACTION

Dik-diks of the Madoqua kirkii/damarensis complex react to the detection of stalking predators in ways consistent with self-advertisement by means of an ocular flag.

Estes (1991) states: "Dik-diks freeze at the slightest disturbance, often with 1 leg raised. The male moves his head cautiously, trying to identify the danger, while the female remains immobile except for the questing tip of her nose...Once a predator is detected and identified, dik-diks behave in 1 of 2 ways, depending on whether it is a stalker or a courser. If it is a cat, they flee just far enough to be safe, emitting loud, explosive whistles at the first (stotting) bounds. They then proceed to keep watch and sound the alarm - possibly in a duet...The male is the principal caller...When the predator is a hyena, wild dog, or other courser, dik-diks immediately sink to the ground and lie still until the enemy passes. If discovered, they flee without whistling".

This contrasts with R. sharpei.

Skinner and Chimimba (2005) state: "they are difficult to observe and are inclined to lie up very tightly and unless disturbed by close approach remain hidden in the undergrowth. When they do run off they do so crouching low to the ground as they run through the thick underbrush, making them difficult to see. Quite often the disturbance of the undergrowth and a glimpse of a reddish body is all that can be seen of them".

The above differences in anti-predator behaviour between R. sharpei and Madoqua kirkii/damarensis are categorical. This is because there are no circumstances in which the former visually advertises itself to potential predators.

Even in the case of audial advertisement, R. sharpei lacks any snort or whistle of alarm, and its only announcement is the sound of stamping of the feet as it initially flees.

What this means:

Although similar in other ways, R. sharpei and the Madoqua kirkii/damarensis complex are extremely different in their reactions to stalking predators. The former simply hides and then, at the last moment, flees. By contrast, the latter are remarkably demonstrative for such small animals, in

Indeed, I suspect that, of all the many genera and species of bambis on Earth, dik-diks are the most demonstrative towards potential predators in the interval between initial alarm and running.

With respect to social behaviour:

For Madoqua damarensis, Skinner and Chimimba (2005) state: "The pair may be accompanied by up to two offspring... approximately 10% of groups are polygynous, containing two unrelated females...may form temporary aggregations of up to 10 individuals at sites of food abundance...one of the few antelopes in which female territoriality has been documented".

See https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-dikdiks-or-kirk-dikdik-madoqua-kirkii-adult-animal-stand-dry-grass-146441152.html.

For Raphicerus sharpei, the same authors state: "One usually encounters solitary adults, pairs, or a female with her single offspring...They are shy and secretive and can be overlooked in areas where in reality they are reasonably common".

What emerges is a clear role for an ocular flag in dik-diks, in a syndrome including both anti-predator and social behaviours.

DOES ANY OTHER UNGULATE QUALIFY FOR AN OCULAR FLAG?

If we accept that the pattern of colouration at the eye is the only adaptively conspicuous feature in certain species of dik-dik, then this creates a scientific search-image for ocular flags in other ungulates.

It is well-known that various clades of bovids and cervids contain spp. with pale superciliary (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/superciliary) or supraorbital (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supraorbital) markings.

However, the adaptive function of such markings depends on

  • the relative size of the eye, which depends mainly on body size,
  • the extension of the pale marking to encircle the whole eye (plus antorbital gland, if present), and
  • the presence of other pale markings on the figure, which would distract from the eye.

Body size is important. This is because the larger the body, the proportionately smaller the eye tends to be.

For example, Litocranius walleri resembles dik-diks in the pattern of colouration at the eye (https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&order=relevance&safe_search=1&k=Gerenuk&search_page=1&search_type=usertyped&acp=&aco=Gerenuk&get_facets=0&asset_id=1180611 and https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&order=relevance&safe_search=1&k=Gerenuk&search_page=1&search_type=usertyped&acp=&aco=Gerenuk&get_facets=0&asset_id=218236488).

However, this is too small, relative to the whole figure, to qualify as a flag (https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-female-gerenuk-litocranius-walleri-15381432.html). Instead, in this case the pattern is more likely to function disruptively, i.e. in aid of camouflage.

In summary, the argument for an ocular flag in dik-diks is based on the following:

  • body size is extremely small (5 kg) for an ungulate, making the eye proportionately large,
  • the eye is relatively large even among the various ungulates of similar, small body size,
  • the rest of the colouration is plain, with even the erectile crest, on the crown of the head, lacking dark/pale contrast,
  • the tail is too small to function as a flag, even if it were dark/pale,
  • the reaction to non-cursorial predators - presumably even by night - is one of self-advertisement, and
  • there is more sociality than expected for a small-bodied, mainly monogamous ruminant.

So, in the spirit of scientific hypothesis-testing, I can make the following prediction.

Among all the ungulates of the world, the only species qualifying for an ocular flag belong to the genus Madoqua.

Which leads to a challenge to readers:

Can anyone find any ungulate, other than dik-diks, that possesses an ocular flag?

Posted on 07 October, 2022 02:43 by milewski milewski | 8 comments | Leave a comment

08 October, 2022

Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a cervid counterpart to a combination of reedbuck (Redunca) and oribi (Ourebia)

Ozotoceros bezoarticus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pampas_deer and https://www.flickriver.com/photos/tags/ozotocerosbezoarticus/interesting/)

BEZOARTICUS

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-adult-female-in-the-serra-da-canastra-national-park-100398200.html?imageid=E4A2251E-004A-4A56-8EB2-16B8FFBB0BBE&p=283705&pn=1&searchId=74211a6e64db02bb79c442f99caae331&searchtype=0

https://www.flickr.com/photos/janharteman/8058927300/

https://www.projectnoah.org/spottings/1071836031

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/deer-walking-across-dry-foliage-serra-175235843

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/endangered-pampas-deer-walks-open-cerrado-2147514817

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/O._bezoarticus_buck.jpg

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/pampas-deer-gm1304401153-395569679?phrase=pampas%20deer

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/young-pampas-deer-in-dry-fields-gm883088202-245660503?phrase=pampas%20deer

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/pampas-deer-gm1304400868-395569580?phrase=pampas%20deer

LEUCOGASTER

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-male-female-pair-pantanal-brazil-image263004423.html

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-portrait-threatened-pantanal-ecosystem-125331082.html?imageid=D4E39339-BC1E-4FBD-A41D-D5DA839A8CC6&p=360666&pn=2&searchId=ed47bee1ed271ad3ec6b2a3ea03a7edd&searchtype=0

https://www.mindenpictures.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-portrait-threatened-pantanal-naturephotography-image00300167.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pampas_deer#/media/File:Pampas_deer_nursing_fwan.jpg

https://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/photo/pampas-deer-royalty-free-image/6591-001066

http://animal.memozee.com/Arch08/1605696453.jpg

https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-images-pampas-deer-eating-grass-image10037244

https://www.flickr.com/photos/micguti/35629446245

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-pampas-deer-meadow-pantanal-brazil-1821705413

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-pampas-deer-grazing-sunset-pantanal-1821704966

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-female-standing-portrait-southern-pantanal-mato-grosso-do-sul-state-brazil-image262947078.html

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-in-the-pantanal-south-97949283.html?imageid=5352099C-0F20-4867-88D5-D9788C22779A&p=283705&pn=1&searchId=74211a6e64db02bb79c442f99caae331&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/close-up-of-a-pampas-deer-at-sunset-pantanal-brazil-image332972897.html?imageid=A49E14CD-A1AF-4C13-9F9D-DCC72EBE6154&p=164502&pn=1&searchId=74211a6e64db02bb79c442f99caae331&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-female-pantanal-mato-grosso-do-image156274261.html?imageid=BF697E47-C07A-4203-A9A9-32450CE32053&p=183828&pn=1&searchId=74211a6e64db02bb79c442f99caae331&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-image471722839.html?imageid=C3219AF2-099B-4FBC-8420-107F50FE2DDB&p=59099&pn=1&searchId=74211a6e64db02bb79c442f99caae331&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-image471722845.html

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-image471722891.html

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-closeup-image471723130.html

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-doe-image471648515.html

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-male-pantanal-mato-grosso-do-sul-image156274255.html

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-feeding-pantanal-brazil-image263004428.html

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-at-caiman-ranch-in-the-southern-pantanal-in-brazil-image344184872.html

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-in-the-pantanal-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-101298369.html

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-in-the-pantanal-south-97949154.html

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-young-pampas-deer-in-the-pantanal-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-101298366.html

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-photographed-at-fazenda-barranco-alto-brazil-image409799958.html?imageid=D21A2FD6-CC28-4294-A563-850ABCB040E6&p=1386017&pn=1&searchId=74211a6e64db02bb79c442f99caae331&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-male-stands-in-grass-pantanal-mato-grosso-do-sul-brazil-image226563013.html?imageid=CD1AB8B3-4C70-49BF-B30B-27AA58B3D542&p=183828&pn=1&searchId=74211a6e64db02bb79c442f99caae331&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/fmea-de-veado-campeiro-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-com-seu-filhote-no-pantanal-mato-grossense-miranda-mato-grosso-do-sul-brasil-30dez2011-a-female-pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-with-its-fawn-in-the-brazilian-pantanal-miranda-mato-grosso-do-sul-brazil-dec-30-2011-fotophoto-daniel-de-granville-fotoarena-image209093717.html?imageid=7953B609-7B52-4873-BAC6-F72EDE2FBFFC&p=304085&pn=2&searchId=ed47bee1ed271ad3ec6b2a3ea03a7edd&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-mother-and-young-pantanal-brazil-125609752.html?imageid=1DCFAFB0-0F41-4B4B-AFA5-19613CBBEBF9&p=361890&pn=2&searchId=ed47bee1ed271ad3ec6b2a3ea03a7edd&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-male-foraging-in-swamp-pantanal-125609753.html?imageid=3DF50F52-1F3E-4475-B50B-46220DB05371&p=361890&pn=2&searchId=ed47bee1ed271ad3ec6b2a3ea03a7edd&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-portrait-threatened-pantanal-ecosystem-125331081.html?imageid=DEA98462-04F4-4C99-8CED-1A6706E8DEB5&p=360666&pn=2&searchId=ed47bee1ed271ad3ec6b2a3ea03a7edd&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-portrait-threatened-pantanal-ecosystem-125331083.html?imageid=E1FE120B-4B62-43B6-B06A-C77F495A0608&p=360666&pn=2&searchId=ed47bee1ed271ad3ec6b2a3ea03a7edd&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-female-pantanal-mato-grosso-do-image156274261.html

CELER

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/36193841

https://www.collett-trust.org/species-detail?ft=&id=434&rp=es

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/133542199

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/133542203

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/133542192

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21215735

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12804701

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12245008

URUGUAYENSIS/ARERUNGUAENSIS

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Venado-UY-Ozotoceros_bezoarticus.jpg

https://www.alamy.com/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus-uruguay-image61338348.html?imageid=1B83B511-5BC7-40A2-9FFD-81BECE0CDC0E&p=186545&pn=2&searchId=ed47bee1ed271ad3ec6b2a3ea03a7edd&searchtype=0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2l2pQJROnc

https://www.zoochat.com/community/media/pampas-deer-ozotoceros-bezoarticus.489469/

https://www.zoochat.com/community/media/pampas-deer.151174/

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Venado-Campo-UY-Ozotoceros_bezoarticus.jpg

https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdtimm/29235995873

Posted on 08 October, 2022 21:33 by milewski milewski | 33 comments | Leave a comment

09 October, 2022

Structure and function of the tail show that the red hartebeest (Alcelaphus caama) is a different species from Coke's hartebeest (Alcelaphus cokii)

Many naturalists may assume that Coke's hartebeest (Alcelaphus cokii, https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-serengeti-national-park-tanzania/C64-333509) and the red hartebeest (Alcelaphus caama, https://www.alamy.com/red-hartebeest-looking-back-at-the-camera-in-the-etosha-national-park-namibia-image333967854.html?imageid=EF8FCEFA-33A4-48D5-9880-15A4309EFCDE&p=1218170&pn=1&searchId=b7d49f5339284cf3fa7cbfd13493b7f1&searchtype=0) are mere subspecies of a single, widespread species (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/42418-Alcelaphus-buselaphus).

And that Groves and Grubb (2011, https://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/5806913), in elevating them to the status of full species, were overenthusiastic as taxonomic 'splitters'.

The 'lumping' view taken by iNaturalist may seem reasonable, given that many bovids vary subspecifically in details of colouration, and the shapes of their horns.

However, the distinction between cokii and caama runs deeper than it may at first seem. This is because

  • their tails differ in structure and function, and
  • the 'flight announcements' of ruminants - being basic to their anti-predator adaptations - tend to be more evolutionarily conservative than other aspects of their appearance and behaviour.

In order to understand the relevance of the tail, we first have to appreciate the part the tail plays in the broader context of adaptive colouration.

Please see https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-adult-male-urinating-nov-01-75984035.html.

BLEEZES

Both Alcelaphus cokii and Alcelaphus caama are candidates for the possession of bleezes on their hindquarters. These consist of large, pale, sheeny patches on the buttocks and haunches, contrasting with the dark of the tail-tassel.

By definition, bleezes tend to highlight the figures even when stationary, making them conspicuous to scanning predators even at some distance (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7203432 and https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=35&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=190234735).

However, on closer scrutiny, the patterns are too different for cokii and caama to be regarded as mere subspecies.

This is because

These differences are so great that caama unambivalently possesses a bleeze, but the same cannot be said for cokii.

Of thousands of photos of cokii - with various illuminations - on the Web, the following makes the strongest possible case for conspicuous colouration in this species: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/28485278.

The following views of cokii also indicate a bleeze (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/123483683 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/99045002 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/109369132).

However, this pattern results from not only depigmentation of the pelage, but also poorly-understood sheen/antisheen effects - which depend on the angle of the light. Furthermore, it tends to achieve conspicuousness only in posterior/posteriolateral view (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71988760).

Another basic difference is that, in cokii, the pale extends to the legs, dissipating any pale/dark contrast within the figure as a whole (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/107719609 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/107694269 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68224081).

By contrast, in caama,

The following (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/134223975 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/137402506 and https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=36&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=329542983) show that, in full profile, cokii can look so plain that it seems to exemplify cryptic colouration. This can hardly be said for adults of caama, in any illumination.

CAUDAL FLAGS

This dichotomy between cokii and caama is compounded by an obvious difference in caudal flags (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/44456211 and https://www.alamy.com/a-red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-running-in-grassland-mountain-zebra-national-park-south-africa-image440713886.html?imageid=E12F774D-E68C-4D3A-A6D3-44C89969B928&p=70019&pn=1&searchId=5a9d18d908b9a4c9c188c881e40a80e9&searchtype=0). This may apply particularly during stotting.

In cokii, the tail is not held raised during running. Instead, it tends to be tucked in.

Alcelaphus cokii, RUNNING:

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/cokes-hartebeest-antelope-running-in-full-speed-gm98276488-5028558
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/84953378
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/12006261
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77464544
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/136147512
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/49551879
https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-a-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-jumping-in-serengeti-national-park-76976124.html?imageid=F4546AE1-971D-4C5A-889A-C033F7B2D356&p=152806&pn=1&searchId=dd955a26290b03da01e8ddcb7ee030d3&searchtype=0
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=2&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=75506687
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=12&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=188221515
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=49&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=223750011
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=53&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=229566786
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=57&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=100729249
https://brill.com/view/journals/beh/34/3/article-p184_5.xml
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/hartebeest-african-wilderness-1671628972
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/hartebeest-running-787348183
Second photo in https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18343
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78526793
https://www.jungledragon.com/image/1386/cokes_hartebeest_running_in_maasai_mara_park.html.

By contrast, in caama the tail is raised to about a horizontal position. This makes for a conspicuous display, given that the dark tail-tassel is so large.

Alcelaphus caama, RUNNING:

https://www.deviantart.com/livingwild/art/Red-Hartebeest-Antelope-Calving-Season-in-Africa-495584767
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=34&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=176274896
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/74215422
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/85175628
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/99228328
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/68777851
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/24626
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/running-red-hatebeest-gm147268289-12655850?phrase=red%20hartebeest%20running
https://www.alamy.com/red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-running-south-africa-image7476532.html
https://www.alamy.com/red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-running-south-africa-image7476533.html
https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-running-midmar-nature-reserve-48784421.html
https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photos-red-hartebeest-running-dust-alcelaphus-caama-kalahari-desert-south-africa-image32633848
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/red-hartebeest-wildlife-background-africa-kicking-154605314
https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=hartebeest&asset_id=304732398
https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=hartebeest&asset_id=43797528
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=7&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=312651124
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=13&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=521485534
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=14&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=521485490
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=41&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=63612809
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=56&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=92207064
https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=59&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=240170789
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/wide-view-image-red-hartebeest-jumping-746827654
https://www.facebook.com/ufumenehunting/photos/a.700562320066632/1130951283694398/
https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-running-south-africa/BWI-BLWS016734
Scroll to two photos in https://www.warwicktarboton.co.za/other%20crea%20pgs/331RHart.html
Scroll in https://www.sa-venues.com/wildlife/wildlife_hartebees.php
https://www.biolib.cz/en/image/id59439/.

My interpretation is that caama, but not cokii, qualifies as possessing a caudal flag, in an anti-predator context.

STOTTING

Both cokii and caama stot.

However, there is a previously overlooked, categorical difference in the function of the tail during stotting.

In cokii, the tail is not displayed, instead being hidden close to the buttocks. By contrast, in caama the tail is raised demonstratively to or above the horizontal position. This means that a caudal flag is activated, during stotting, only in caama.

Alcelaphus cokii, STOTTING:

https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=36&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=386270971

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22coke%27s+hartebeest%22&asset_id=492703598

https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=20&search_type=pagination&get_facets=0&asset_id=317282813)

https://www.deviantart.com/okavanga/art/Hartebeest-Pronking-580725645.

Alcelaphus caama, STOTTING:

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-caama-kalagadi-transfrontier-national-park-20615945.html?imageid=F0DD43F6-6FF7-4E21-9BCC-33A93C96F96B&p=83674&pn=14&searchId=51c9d6930caf87bf5205e81dfcd7e3fc&searchtype=0

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/red-hartebeest-lephale-south-africa-stacie-gary.html?product=art-print

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-roger-de-la-harpe.html?product=art-print

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/25297

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-two-red-hartebeest-running-and-playing-encompassing-the-former-kalahari-20462538.html

https://www.jungledragon.com/image/25924/golden_gallop_-_red_hartebeest.html/zoom

https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/red-hartebeest-wildlife-background-africa-running-198837815

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/red-hartebeest-running-robert-goodell.html.

SUMMARY

The tail differs so much, between caama and cokii, that it would be far-fetched to include them in a single species. This seems to have been overlooked by all previous authors.

(Groves and Grubb (2011) made no attempt to analyse adaptive colouration. Therefore, their reasons, for recognising cokii and caama as different species, differ from mine.

As I have shown in this Post, conspicuous colouration - at a scale relevant to anti-predator adaptations - is

Furthermore, this applies in terms of both

FURTHER ILLUSTRATIONS

ALCELAPHUS COKII

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/39428942

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=521505643

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/121920320

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=130522218

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/111309212

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=370965094

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/112021067

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/106838203

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=57153968

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLocCHQQXok

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8TQVFT6nYik

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8AV-KKi5UI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3z5smcogt8

https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=510632856278947

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/106289120

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/57907581

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/56613568

https://www.alamy.com/the-hartebeest-in-the-savannah-of-kenya-image362032488.html?imageid=203F60CA-9B71-4A41-A393-F7F090C94AF5&p=559024&pn=3&searchId=cb17bca3117d90ae1d23b96c6968365f&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/the-hartebeest-in-the-savannah-of-kenya-image362032485.html?imageid=FE6382E0-DA77-48D1-AB57-6D3B6078C3C1&p=559024&pn=3&searchId=cb17bca3117d90ae1d23b96c6968365f&searchtype=0

https://www.alamy.com/the-hartebeest-in-the-savannah-of-kenya-image385842293.html?imageid=0AB6B271-F5A4-4E89-83E1-8A0A0996CCC6&p=1362912&pn=3&searchId=cb17bca3117d90ae1d23b96c6968365f&searchtype=0

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/31957046

https://www.alamy.com/topi-damaliscus-lunatus-masai-mara-national-nature-reserve-kenya-east-africa-image221446430.html?imageid=7A088290-7AB3-4048-A35E-183FDFFCB797&p=3299&pn=21&searchId=b7a6fe1a350bc59a7aa23deaddd10d09&searchtype=0

ALCELAPHUS CAAMA

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14971522

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/58641471

https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=2&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=433329974

https://stock.adobe.com/search?filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aphoto%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aillustration%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Azip_vector%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Avideo%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Atemplate%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3A3d%5D=1&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aaudio%5D=0&filters%5Binclude_stock_enterprise%5D=0&filters%5Bis_editorial%5D=0&filters%5Bfree_collection%5D=0&filters%5Bcontent_type%3Aimage%5D=1&k=hartebeest&order=relevance&safe_search=1&limit=100&search_page=2&get_facets=0&search_type=pagination&asset_id=366438753

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/103493695

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/99574217

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/130263808

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=303845260

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/43579354

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/137833521

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/60947050

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=19811769

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=166785069

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104028400

https://stock.adobe.com/search?k=%22alcelaphus+buselaphus%22&asset_id=444553660

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/49832745

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/45300658

https://www.alamy.com/red-hartebeest-alcelaphus-buselaphus-female-with-its-calv-stand-in-savanna-south-africa-mokala-national-park-image255403236.html?imageid=5B6DA9F2-41DC-4461-8884-57B681930DA8&p=851122&pn=1&searchId=5a9d18d908b9a4c9c188c881e40a80e9&searchtype=0

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/red-hartebeest-looking-back-at-the-camera-gm825530608-133903461

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/24874937

Posted on 09 October, 2022 22:52 by milewski milewski | 39 comments | Leave a comment