02 September, 2023

31 August, 2021

Quick Curation Tools.

To assist curators in checking things.


No localities:

"Please fill in your coordinates and locality. We need them to place your toad and work out how far they have moved, and where they breed and feed, and other monitoring information.
Click Edit (top right of observation), and in the map zoom in until you can see the exact spot that you found the toad (street address level). Add the location accuracy circle to show how certain you are of the exact locality Edit the place name if you want. Save (below).
If your app is working correctly, it should record this all automatically. If you are having problems, please check that the app can access your phone's GPS."

Not in southern Africa:

"Please fix your locality: it is not in southern Africa"

No dates:
(includes a few other reasons for observations being made "casual"

"No date: please add the date that this was observed. And sync your data.
In the rare event where the date is displayed on your app version, please just edit it to 5 minutes later, and save and sync)"


No pictures: (but does include sounds!)

"No pictures. Please sync your app. Alternatively manually upload a picture. If the observation has no useful information, please consider deleting the observation please - but not if there is statistically useful information! - In which case, please just add a note explaining that there is intentionally no picture."


Dead without Roadkill Project:
(NB: not all dead toads are roadkill. Please check before adding to the Roadkill (s Afr) project. )

"If you have time, please add toads killed on the roads to the "Roadkill (s Afr)" project. We dont recommend that you do it in the field while saving toads, but during your checking of data in the days that follow. The Roadkill project is used by, amongst others, the EWT for keeping track on all animals killed on our roads"

Observations without WLT Monotoring Project:

  1. Monitoring without the project
    "Please remember to add the WLT Monitoring project to your observations in the field and fill out the data for sex, state, direction moving and female egg-state. These data help us track what is happening during the breeding season."

  2. Casual observations.
    "Why not join our WLT Monitoring project at https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/wlt-monitoring. This project uses the "fingerprint" pattern on the toads back to keep track of their site fidelity (do they come back to your garden every year), pond fidelity (do they always breed in the same ponds), their distance moved (sometimes several km), their longevity (up to 8 years), their routes and their foibles. Details of how to participate, as well as lots of other interesting toad information can be found in the project. If you would like to help save toads on the roads during the short breeding season in Aug-Sept, please contact your area coordinator (see the project journal). "


Locality Errors (Location Accuracy) too large:

Please refine your location. Check the point (zoom in deep) and reduce the Location Accuracy [= error or precision] as to as small a value or circle as is valid.
The app should be accurate to 5m, but this is 14km radius.
When first switching on the app, please make sure the GPS is on, and give the app about a minute to find out where you are. Once found, it should remain accurate to metres for the rest of the period until you close the app.
If you take the pictures with the camera and then add them to the app, you will need to manage the Location Accuracy manually."

Locality Errors (Location Accuracy) Missing:

"Please fix your locality resolution (or locality accuracy or locality error). Too large an accuracy, or missing accuracy, means that the data are not incorporated into checklists for the smaller nature reserves and places, and cannot be used for conservation planning and red listing purposes. And wont allow us to accurately record toad movements.
Ideally we like it to be 2-5m accuracy, but often one is uncertain, or does not know quite where one was, in which case it might be 100s of metres. but please if you genuinely dont know exactly where you were dont make them too precise, even if it is to the nearest km or two.
You need to enter this in when you add your observations. It shows up as a circle showing the area in which you were where you are uncertain as to exactly where the point should be. You can enter the value directly in metres for the radius of the circle.
Please see how to enter these when uploading you data in this tutorial: https://vimeo.com/167431843
Here is your list of observations without Locality accuracy recorded:
To fix it, please click Edit (up top) and type in the value in the "Acc (m)" box, and/or adjust the circle around your locality in the map. While at it please give a decent locality name (the Googlemap names are atrociously vague) - but be careful not to press "search" after entering the name as that will corrupt your coordinates.
and save ...
If you have lots, you will need to batch edit it: please see instructions here: https://forum.inaturalist.org/t/batch-updating-location-accuracy/11421 (Thanks Peter).
((please note: the app should record your locality accuracy automatically, if you take the photographs with the app. It wont if you add the photographs afterwards, in which case it needs to be manually inserted))"


Observations marked as Non-research Grade: please review the reason and respond:


Observations needing confirmation of ID:

Posted on 31 August, 2021 09:58 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comments | Leave a comment

12 August, 2021

04 August, 2020

26 July, 2018

Reportbacks and Updates on 2018 Season.

Please keep us informed here of what is happening in your area.

Posted on 26 July, 2018 13:19 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 3 comments | Leave a comment

30 June, 2018


Summary of literature review identifying waterfowl suited to WLT breeding sites


This list has been compiled for the Western Leopard Toad Conservation Committee with specific reference to the breeding sites of the Western Leopard Toad (Sclerrophrys pantherina).
In an effort to maximize the breeding success of the Toads, certain management actions and or preventative measures could be important.  This is especially important where humans impact directly on the breeding sites and foraging ranges of toads.  One of these impacts is the management of domestic and alien ducks, and the option of using suitable indigenous species. This list therefore identifies the indigenous waterfowl species most suitable for introduction into wetlands that are important breeding areas for WLT.  Waterfowl seldom threaten adult toads, and their impacts are largely to the eggs and tadpoles of the WLT in their breeding ponds.  It is also important to mention that the use of locally indigenous species is recommended and therefore details on the distribution of each species has been included. 

The purpose of this document is to identify species for introduction to dams and ponds.  Please note that indigenous waterfowl that have become established on private property on their own accord must under no circumstance be shot, hunted, removed by whatever means or have their nests pillaged, etc.  Waterfowl are highly mobile and suitable areas may be colonized and deserted by birds at any time.  Birds may be present only sporadically, or only at certain times of day, or they may take up residence for breeding or moulting.  Predation of tadpoles is natural and part of selection process acting on WLT.  Any attempt to remove wild populations or individuals - where they are suspected of severely impacting WLT - must be done with the consent of and in collaboration and consultation with the City’s Biodiversity Management Branch and/or CapeNature. 

Please note that this list is based on literature only. It is subject to revision following studies resulting from future introductions as well as interviews with existing breeders.

To this purpose, waterfowl have been divided into 3 categories:
Toad friendly”: Species that do not feed on tadpoles, and are thus compatible with WLT breeding ponds;
Questionable”: Species that are less suitable, but would probably only impact in WLT under unusual conditions.  Supplementary feeding could prevent predation on tadpoles, but this must still be confirmed.  Until more information is available these species are not recommended for introduction into WLT breeding ponds; &
Species not suitable”, as they are known to feed on tadpoles and should never intentionally be introduced into WLT breeding sites.

Note that the Mallard and White Quackers are illegal and may not be allowed into the wild.  Please report any birds seen to your conservation officer for immediate eradication.

Click on the links below to skip to a section:

Toad-friendly Options | Questionable Options | Species not suitable | Exotic species to be removed


White-backed Duck (Thalassornis leuconotus)

Distribution:  Scattered in E. Cape.  Uncommon and localized in W. Cape with the majority of the population confined to a few water bodies, mostly on the northern fringes of Cape Peninsula and southern coastal lowlands.  

Diet: A forager in bottom muds among aquatic herbs.  Some 97% of their diet consists of aquatic herbs, in particular Nymphaea & Nymphoides, as well as seeds.  Chironomid larvae have been found in the stomachs of ducklings.

Southern Pochard (Netta erythrophthalma)

Distribution:  Widespread but patchy, most abundant (but with large annual fluctuations) in W. Cape and on the highveld.

Diet: Little is known about their diet, but the majority of the stomach contents studied(almost 99%) consist of plant material, mainly seeds and fruit, but also Nymphaea & Nymphiodes, rhizomes, grass and leaves.  Animal material never exceeds 3%, and includes fluke snails. 

South African Shelduck (Tadorna cana)

Distribution:  Particularly abundant in W. Cape, E. Cape and N. Cape and southern Free State. 

Diet:  Young feed largely on submerged aquatic vegetation, including algae.  Adults mainly feed on plant material (96%) such as maize seeds, sorghum seeds and submerged aquatic plants (e.g. algae).  Animal food is ingested during the pre-breeding period and includes mainly crustacean and tendipedid larvae and pupae, in addition to plant material. 

Egyptian Goose (Alpochen aegyptiaca)

Distribution:  Extensive range in SA.  Most abundant in W. Cape, KZN interior and Mpumalanga.  Absent only from regions of extreme aridity or high altitude. 

Diet:  Primarily a grazer and grass seed-stripper.  They feed on grasses, grain, shoots, leaves, aquatic plants, young crops, wheat, oats, lucerne, barley, groundnut and sunflowers.  When moulting they rely solely on aquatic algae, pondweed & Kwick Cynodon dactylon.  Invertebrates are mostly ingested by accident, but they will occasionally eat termite alates. 

Fulvous Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor)

Distribution: Recorded widely but sparsely in NE South Africa, but a fairly common summer visitor to Witwatersrand.  Uncommon in Free-State.  Mainly in coastal lowlands of KwaZulu-Natal, especially north and less frequent inland.  Extends southwards through E. Cape to W. Cape, but a rare visitor with few breeding records. 

Diet: Mainly plant material (98.8%) including grass seeds, filaments of algae, Nymphaea & Nymphoides.  Aquatic insects form 1.2% of diet. 

White-faced Duck (Dendrocygna viduata)

Distribution:  Widespread and common in lowveld and bushveld.  Widespread in KwaZulu-Natal.  Fairly widespread in northern and central Free-State.  Scattered and irregular occurrence through E. Cape and W. Cape. 

Diet:  Dominated by plant material (99 – 100%) with possible slight increase in small invertebrates during breeding and moult.  They are exceptionally efficient at assimilating protein from plant matter.  Animal material ingested includes molluscs and insects. 

Comb Duck / Knob-billed Duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos)

Distribution: Widespread in lowveld and bushveld of north-east.  Common in floodplains of north-east KZN.  Irregular visitor or vagrant to Free State, E., W. and N. Cape. 

Diet:  Almost exclusively plant material which includes crop residue, seeds, fruits of grasses and herbs, rhizomes, leaves (including Nymphaea & Nymphoides) and negligible amounts of animal matter such as termite alates.


Maccoa Duck (Oxyura maccoa)

Distribution:  South African strongholds in W. Cape and Highveld.  Scattered records throughout uplands of KZN, also in N. Cape, E. Cape and Free-State. 

Diet: Forages almost exclusively by diving, feeding in bottom muds.  Feeds mainly on small invertebrates such as midge larvae and pupae (45%), ostracods (32%), gastropods (19%) and other organisms (4%).  They also feed on snails, water fleas and some seeds and roots. 

Yellow-billed Duck (Anas undulata)  

Distribution: Common throughout South Africa, although largely absent from arid areas. 

Diet: Some 83% plant material (such as new growth of aquatic plants) and 17% animal material (mainly chironomid larvae).  Females eat less plant matter (71%) than Males but the animal component remains similar with the inclusion of mayflies.   Pre-fledging juveniles eat substantially less plant material (29%) and a wider range of animal species (including larvae, grasshoppers and snails). 

Notes: Yellow-billed Ducks hybridize with Mallard and White Quackers.  The main reason why Mallards & White Quackers must be removed is that our native Yellow-billed Duck populations are being replaced by undesirable hybrid swarms.  These hybrid individuals must also be removed. 

Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus gambensis)

Distribution:  Common in W. and E. Cape, but sparse in N. Cape.  Has spread into the Nama Karoo.  Western Cape birds are possibly derived from introductions in early 1940’s. 

Diet: The bulk of the diet consists of plant material including rhizomes, stolons, leaves, seeds and filaments of algae.  Some animal matter is included in the diet such as termite alates, bugs, beetles and larvae.  Young also catch small fish by diving. 

African Black Duck (Anas sparsa)

Distribution:  Most common below escarpment in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, E. Cape and W. Cape, but also widespread over much of eastern and southern central plateau.  Extends into Karoo along rivers. 

Diet:  Little is known, but it is presumed to feed mainly on benthic invertebrates and vegetable matter such as seeds and fruit.  Animal material eaten includes insect larvae, crustaceans, molluscs, crabs and fish fry. 

African Pygmy-Goose (Nettapus auritus)

Distribution:  Widespread in KwaZulu-Natal, but with more scattered southwards along coastal plain, with some records further inland including Kruger NP.  Few records, mostly pre-1920, from E. Cape. 

Diet:  Reported as essentially surface feeders, but mostly dives to obtain Nymphaea pods.  Some 98 – 100% of the diet consists of ripe seeds and flower parts of water lilies.  Other food includes grasses, pondweeds, seeds, fish fry, insects and moth larvae and pupae. 


Red-billed Teal (Anas erythrorhyncha)

Distribution:  Recorded over most of South Africa, but most common on the Highveld and in W. Cape, less uniformly distributed elsewhere and only scattered over much of N. Cape. 

Diet:  Consists of plant (24%) and animal material (76%), but proportions vary. They will feed on maize, wheat and sunflower seeds, lucerne, grass seeds as well as worms, aquatic crustaceans, tadpoles and fish.   

Cape Shoveller (Anas smithii)

Distribution:  Most abundant in lowlands of W. Cape, and Highveld of Free-State, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and NW Province.  Scattered from west coast through to Nama Karoo, E. Cape and KwaZulu-Natal.  Patchy or absent elsewhere. 

Diet:  Some 70% animal matter such as snails, insects, crustaceans and tadpoles and 30% plant material such as leaves and stems. 

Hottentot Teal (Anas hottentota)

Distribution:  Most common in northern Highveld of NW Province, Gauteng and Mpumalanga, extending to uplands and coastal lowlands of KwaZulu-Natal.  Scattered elsewhere in South Africa, Free-State N. Cape and E. Cape. A rare visitor to W. Cape.

Diet: Some 35 – 55% of the diet is animal material, which specifically includes small frogs.  During Jun – Nov the percentage animal material ingested increases to over 90%. 

Cape Teal (Anas capensis)

Distribution: Widespread in southern Africa.  Most common in western coastal lowlands of W. Cape and on western Highveld of inland plateau. 

Diet: Forages mostly by filtering on surface and below, but will also pick animals off submerged vegetation.  The diet consists of 80 - 99% animal material which includes insects, larvae, crustaceans and platanna tadpoles.  The 17% plant material in their diet consists mainly of water plants (stems & leaves). 


Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Distribution:  There are two main localized, feral populations: in W. Cape and Gauteng. These probably originating from escapees from wildfowl collections. 

Diet: Omnivorous, but food varies with season and locality.  Eats seeds, cereals, aquatic vegetation and roots, also insects, molluscs, crustaceans, annelids, amphibians and fish. 

Note: The White Quacker is a Mallard and also breeds with Yellow-billed Ducks.  Mallards and White Quackers must be reported and eliminated wherever they are found in the wild.  Permits are required to keep Mallards or White Quackers, and they must be in enclosures.

Compiled by: Suretha Dorse, February 2009.

Source: Hockey, PAR, Dean WRJ, Ryan PG (eds), 2005, Roberts – Birds of Southern Africa, VIIth ed. The Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town.

Acknowledgements: We thank the following for comments on this list: Clifford Dorse, Dr. Tony Rebelo & Dr. John Measey.

Posted on 30 June, 2018 21:20 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comments | Leave a comment


...in my veggie patch?
...in the swimming pool? ...on the road? ...dead on the road? ...injured on the side of the road? ...in a storm water gutter? ...in my pond? ...in amplexus? in my house ...in my shoe? ...in the house? ...in my dogs water bowl? ...in my toilet? ...in the drain? ... in my garage? ...under my washing machine? ...in my dogs mouth?

What to do if I find a Western Leopard Toad in my veggie patch?

An organic vegetable patch free of pesticides creates perfect habitat for toads and other small vertebrates. It provides a constant food supply (crickets, snails, worms) for your toad in areas which may otherwise lack sufficient prey items and it is generally damp which mimics the toadsҠnatural habitat.

If you find your toad in your veggie patch, leave him there as he is keeping your invertebrate pests under control and giving you the gift of biodiversity!

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

What to do if I find a Western Leopard Toad in the swimming pool?

Swimming pools can account for large amounts of many animals, including Western Leopard Toads, drowning unnecessarily.

Short term: Carefully remove your toad from the pool with a swimming pool net, rinse it in fresh water and place it in a safe area of your garden (under a bush, pile of rocks, retainer blocks, vegetable patch). Place a piece of polystyrene in your weir, a rock on the step and check your pool daily especially after rain. A strip of mesh may be placed over the weir to prevent toads from getting sucked down the weir.

Long term: If you are building a new pool, choose an animal friendly pool such as a beach pool or a raised pool.

If you have a pool already, install a Toadsaver in your pool so that your toads can get out immediately reducing the harmful effects of chlorine and unnecessary deaths of numerous animals!
Click here to learn how easy it is to install a toad saver: Toadnuts : How to install your own Toadsaver.
Once you install your saver, Your toad will now be able to exit freely reducing chlorine absorption and swimming pool drownings! Well done!! For other frogs, place a large rock on a step, they can't climb up the Toadsaver like the toads do! (Toads can walk and hop, frogs can only hop!)

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

On the road at night?

Toads are nocturnal and come out to forage at night, sometimes crossing a road which can be devastating. They are mostly seen on the roads during the August migration to and from the breeding ponds where they can migrate up to 2 kms in search of the nearest water body.

Look out for the toad road signs warning you of toads at night in your area.

During August drive slowly on these roads and watch out for small reflective white stones on the road (The toadӳ throat is white and thatӳ all you see at night reflecting from your car lights).

Put your hazards on, stop on the side of the road, have a reflector jacket handy in your car as drivers canӴ see you at night even with a torch, when the road is clear remove the toad from the road and place it into the bushes in the direction that it was going.  
Dont take them to the breeding pond as that may not be where they are going, rather put them in a safe area close to where you found them in the direction that they are going.
It is important not to move the toad any distance as they can be disorientated and may spend more valuable time trying to find their way. Contact your local volunteer group if you would like to volunteer in your area.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

Dead on the road?

At least the death of this toad will contribute to science and we will have a better understanding of how many toads are dying due to road kill which will help our volunteers keep high road kill areas safe.
If you are able to; bag it and keep in the deepfreeze, with a date, GPS or address found and your contact details. Then contact your local representative to pick up the frozen carcass to pass on to SANBI for analysis.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

Injured on the side of the road?

This toad was hit by a car as you can see a secretion of toxin produced by a toad in distress.. We monitored the toad and after 10 minutes he started walking again, we then released it in a safe place in the direction that he was going.
If your toad is not badly injured with an open cut wound, itӳ better to leave the toad in a safe place near to where you found it.
We did witness a toad with a damaged leg at the breeding pond, still managing to join in on the breeding season.
If you find a toad which is badly injured and still alive, note down the exact place that you found the toad, keep it in a cardboard box at outside temperatures (not in the sun), donӴ warm it up as this will increase its metabolism, contact your local toad representative.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In a storm water gutter?

Toads and other small vertebrates often get stuck in obstacles such as storm water gutters, if you find one, carefully remove

the toad from the gutter and place it into the bushes in the direction that it was going. 
DonӴ take them to the breeding pond as that may not be where they are going, rather put them in a safe area close to where you found them in the direction that they are going.
It is important not to move the toad as they can be disorientated and may spend more valuable time trying to find their way.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In my pond?

If you are a pond owner with Western Leopard Toads breeding in your pond, please be sure to contact the relevant toad representative in your area.
It is important that we know of as many breeding ponds as possible to better safeguard our migrating toads.
Be sure to note the date that your toads start calling, when eggs are laid and when the toadlets emerge from the pond.
Be sure to look after your pond by removing all alien ducks and fish in your ecosystem which can cause a micro extinction of endangered toads and many other frog species that rely on your pond for survival.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In amplexus?

It is an amazing privilege to witness toads in amplexus. If they are in immediate danger (e.g. in a road) itӳ it best to move them out of harms way carefully and leave the pair alone to carry on with their journey to the breeding pond.

The female doesnӴ like to be picked up as sheӳ holding valuable cargo, she may give off a Ҭet me goҠcall, just handle the pair carefully and place them out of danger in the direction that they were going.
DonӴ take them to the breeding pond as that may not be where they are going, rather put them in a safe area close to where you found them in the direction that they are going.
It is important not to move the toad as they can be disorientated and may spend more valuable time trying to find their way.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In my shoe?

Toads being nocturnal, seek out dark, hard places which will protect them from predators such as birds and snakes and keep them cool and moist. You may want to check for toads first if you leave your shoes outside. If you have old shoes you can scatter them around your garden under the bushes to provide your toad with a nice home!

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In the house?

Toads sometimes enter into houses as the dark interior appears to be like going into a crack between two rocks. Once inside they usually look for somewhere small and dark to stay. Sometimes these places become regular homes and people find that they are sharing their house with a beautiful Western Leopard Toad. This usually happens when people leave doors to the outside open for pets. However, there are many hazards in the house for a toad such as the vacuum machine, being trapped in a draw or cupboard or dehydration and starvation (if you block regular access to the outside). Be sure to close your doors at night to prevent nocturnal toads from wandering inside and getting trapped indoors. If you do have a resident toad who knows his way around your home, be sure to leave something open for easy exit such as a cat flap low to the ground or gap open in the door (1 ֠2cm will do)

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In my dogs water bowl?

The reason why your toad is in the water bowl is because he is looking for a moist place.

Safeguard your dogs water bowl by inverting another water bowl underneath to prevent toads climbing in, alternatively place a rock inside your dog bowl to allow your toad to get out.

You can place alternative low water sources in your garden for your toad to choose with a rock inside to allow the toad to get out.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In my toilet

Scoop your toad out with a long thin soup ladle, wash him off with water, place him in the garden in a safe place (bush, rocks, retainer blocks, vegetable patch)

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In the drain?

Scoop your toad out of the drainpipe with a long thin ladle, alternatively place a piece of mesh down the drain for him to climb out (this wont work for frogs as they cant climb, only works for toads)
Place your toad in the garden in a safe place (bush, rocks, retainer blocks, vegetable patch)
If your toad has found a home in your drain area and detergent is actively dripping onto the toad, use biodegradable products and check out http://www.biowashball.co.za/ for a wonderful detergent free product!

Alternatively glue a piece of mesh half way down the drain area allowing the toad to still live there but protecting it from the detergent outlet, be sure to close up any gaps in the mesh as they can slip through a gap as small as 1cm! Cover it with a rock or cement slab to protect your toad from predators.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In my garage?

Leave him there, I have a toad living in my garage in a pile of newspaper, he goes out to forage at night through gap down the side of the garage door. Toads can squeeze themselves through gaps as small as 1cm so as long as there is a gap to serve as an entrance/exit point, he has probably made a cool, dry, safe home in your garage safe from predators and rain. Be sure to check your driveway when you drive on rainy nights especially in August!

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

Under my washing machine?

Toads often seek out cool, damp areas away from predators such as snakes and birds.
Toads can squeeze themselves through gaps as small as 1- 2cm.
As long as there is a gap to serve as an entrance/exit point, he has probably made a cool, dry, safe home under your washing machine. Your toad is perfectly happy there and should be left alone.
If detergent is actively dripping onto the toad, a biodegradable detergent is recommended or check out http://www.biowashball.co.za/ for a wonderful detergent free product!

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

In my dog's mouth?

Toads and pets dont normally have problems but if your pet does try to kill a toad, your toad will try to save its life by releasing a small amount of toxin from the parotid gland behind each eye which means "Let me go"
The toxin tastes awful which repels most predators and it is unlikely that your pet would try again If you dog ingest some toxin, it may start frothing at the mouth, wash your dog's mouth out with water or a cloth immediately before taking your pet to the vet.

Symptoms are often short lived unless your pet refuses to let the toad go resulting in too much toxin being ingested which may be fatal in extreme cases. If necessary, place a few hiding places such as a pile of wood or retainer blocks for your toad on the far end of the garden. Toads are nocturnal so easily avoided. For more information visit pets & vets.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

Underneath the trampoline?

Any ditch can be a death trap for many small animals, you can place a piece of mesh, few old tyres, sandbags, or raise the soil area to create an exit point out of your ditch.

Take a photo of your toad and follow this link to contribute to citizen science by uploading your toad.

Information compiled by Suzi Jirachareonkul, 2009.

Posted on 30 June, 2018 20:55 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Western Leopard Toad Volunteer Groups

CALL THE WLT HOTLINE: 082 516 3602

Today, the majority the distribution of the Western Leopard Toad falls under residential suburbs and agriculture, making monitoring complicated. Since the expansion and transformation of the City of Cape Town, the majority of toads have moved into residential gardens and live behind the secure walls of private properties. As a result the fate of these toads lies largely within the control and actions of the urban landowner.

Every year from around the end of July until early September, residents of these toad inhabited areas gather their torches and coats to brace the winter chill and rescue their native dwellers as it is during this period when annual breeding takes place.

The map WLT Observations (click! - choose map option) shows all the known suburbs where Western Leopard Toads live or forage. Breeding does not occur in all, but Western Leopard Toads may live up to five kilometres from their breeding sites. Therefore they may well occur in suburbs not highlighted here, so if you know of one in an area not indicated here, we would like to know!
Either Contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602 or better still (UPLOAD YOUR TOAD(click)

The need for volunteers is extensive as breeding sites are numerous and scattered. The follow lists issues we need assistance in:
Breeding season night patrols for census & monitoring (jump)
Toadlet emergence monitoring(jump)
Popular Article Writing (jump)
Design and Advertising (jump)
Sponsorship (jump)

Area Coordinators

Please contact the WLT Hotline on 082 516 3602 or

one of the following people for your area (as for 2022):



Contact Details

Muizenberg (incl. Frogmore Estate, Kirstenhof, Lakeside, Westlake, Blue Route & Marina Da Gama)

Susan Wishart

083 441 4740 susan.wishart.za@gmail.com

Tokai (incl. Constantia, Nova Constantia, Constantia Hills, Sweet Valley & Zwaanswyk)

Philippa Clemo

082 630 0187

Bergvliet (incl. Meadowridge, Plumstead & Retreat)

Coordinator needed

Zeekoevlei, Rondevlei, Grassy Park & surrounds

Dagny Warmerdam

083 741 5787 dagnywarmerdam@gmail.com

Observatory (incl. Pinelands)

Jean Ramsay

063 505 4702 jean.s.ramsay@gmail.com

Ottery (incl. Kenilworth)

Margaret Kahle

084 415 3428

Hout Bay

Yvonne Kamp

083 402 8541 yvonne@natureconservation.co.za

South Peninsula (incl. Capri, Clovelly, Fish Hoek, Glencairn, Kommetjie & Sun Valley)

Alison Faraday

082 7716232

Noordhoek - ToadNuts

Suzie Jirchareonkul

082 476 1016 https://neag.org.za/toadnuts/

Breeding season night patrols for census and monitoring

Volunteers are needed to assist in night patrols across the suburbs highlighted in the map below. The chief tasks of these helpers would be the moving of toads across roads, to prevent roadkills by motorists. Data is to be recorded of each toad, including a GPS waypoint of the location, a clear photograph of the dorsal or back of the toad from an aerial view, a measurement of the length of each individual and the weight of each toad.  

These volunteers are asked to bring the following:

  • Torch
  • Raincoat
  • Closed shoes or boots for wet weather
  • Clipboard, observation sheet and road kill data slip and pencil OR smartphone loaded with iNaturalist app, with the project WLT Monitoring added.
  • Ruler or ruled paper in ice-cream container
  • GPS and Camera OR Smartphone loaded with iNaturalist app, with the project WLT Monitoring added.
  • Reflector jacket or stickers
    A small scale to record the weight of the toad

Breeding movement around each site may occur from two days up to two weeks. Thus if residents are looking to assist in one area alone, the period of monitoring would be brief. Volunteers interested in assisting in surrounding suburbs as well can expect to be busy for a longer space of time of perhaps as long as a month.
A roster is drawn up for each suburb, therefore depending on the number of volunteers per suburb, individuals would be grouped into teams working every second, third or fourth day.

Toadlet emergence monitoring

Equally important as the adult toads of the breeding season, toadlets are the product of those spawning toads and efforts of the volunteers to get them there alive. Unlike the breeding movement of the adult toads in winter, toadlets disperse typically in the morning in mass, searching for foraging habitat or gardens which to call home. Volunteers who are preferably local residents, are asked to assist in the collecting and moving of these tiny critters over roads.
 Since the toadlets disperse all at once from each site, volunteers are required for only one day for a few hours. This is a fun activity and learning experience for the whole family, so if you would like to bring your children along that would be great! Please see the above table for the relevant contact details.


If you are unable to help us on the roads, you are most welcome to be a scout. Scouts play an imperative role in this operation, because they alert us to when the toads start moving and we in turn mobilize teams to do the patrolling.  
This role would require volunteers to monitor the streets from their homes and perhaps even take a drive through the roads to check if there is any first sign of toads moving in the streets. This activity would commence from the end of July until early September, during which time each site can be active for up to two weeks.

Your kind assistance would also be welcome in the spring season, when the toadlets emerge and disperse from the breeding sites. The time period for this is from the end of November until early January.

For more information please call the WLT Hotline on 082 516 3602.

Popular Article Writing

If you have a knack with words, you could assist us in writing popular articles for magazines, local newspapers and various other publications. This function is needed throughout the year, but especially in the months leading up to and during the breeding season (May-September) and then before, during and after the toadlets emergence season (November-Febuary).
Three categories of article types can be discerned:

The species plight and general
These would exclude the subjects of the breeding season and toadlet emergence.
Examples of article topics are indicated as follows: The importance of Western Leopard Toads and the benefits of their presence in your garden; Wise-use gardening; Western Leopard Toads and similar or other frogs/toads in the distribution; What to do with an injured toad; predators and invasive species - how you can help?; Installing a toad saver; Creating a vegetable patch; Creating your own recycling heap.

Breeding season
Examples of article topics are indicated as follows: Call for volunteers; Be alert on the roads while driving; sponsor monitoring resources; Submit a photo of your toad.

Toadlet emergence
Examples of article topics are indicated as follows: How to attract toadlets to your garden; Securing the livelihood of toadlets in your garden; Volunteer to assist emerging toadlets at breeding sites; Installing a toad saver.

* All articles written are to go via the Western Leopard Toad Conservation Committee for the checking of factual information. For more information please call the WLT Hotline on 082 516 3602.

Design and Advertising

If you have experience in this field, you are welcome to contact us to discuss how you could assist!
We are looking for illustration to compliment articles and be used in awareness drives and on temporary signage.
For more information please call the WLT Hotline on 082 516 3602.


If you would like to contribute sponsorship please contact the Hotline on 082 516 3602.

Last updated 2022

Posted on 30 June, 2018 18:18 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 1 comment | Leave a comment



The Western Leopard Toad Sclerophrys pantherina lives largely in suburban gardens and thus close to domestic animals.  Some breeds of dogs and cats, especially those bred for vermin control, may take excessive interest in toads.
The Western Leopard Toad, like most other toads, has a toxin gland (called the parotid gland) just behind the ears. The toad secretes bufotoxins when it feels that its life is threatened, typically when its body is in the grip of a predatorӳ jaws or if the body cavity has been perforated.
This toxin is not of much harm if consumed in small amounts. When copious amounts are consumed, it can however be harmful to the animal and in all cases must be treated. Some individual pets may be hypersensitive to these toxins, just as some humans have allergies to bee stings.

The majority of breeds of dogs and cats avoid toads, as toad skin is exceedingly unpleasant to the taste.  Most animals that once mouth, lick or even smell a toad, will never touch another again.

Symptoms of poisoning

Symptoms of poisoning are typical of ingesting a poisonous. The first sign is foaming and frothing at the mouth, which is a reaction of the saliva.  Most pets attempt to gag or wipe away the foam.  In most cases, this is as bad as it gets, and treatment is merely to wash out the pets mouth.  Where heavy doses are consumed your pet will experience a rapid increase in heartbeats, nausea and a reduced consciousness. In very selected cases, when the animal is hypersensitive to the toxin and consumes large amounts of it, there is a chance that without treatment, the animal can die. Whenever your pet foams at the mouth take it seriously! Wash the dog's mouth out thoroughly with water and take it to a vet immediately.  Unless you have seen a toad nearby, beware of other causes of foaming such as eating rat poison or drinking poisonous substances.

A survey among vets regarding Western Leopard Toads and Pets

The Western Leopard Toad Conservation Committee conducted a survey of 18 veterinary clinics in Cape Town during 2009.
Doctors were asked ten questions specifically relating to dogs.  The results were:

1) How many dogs are brought into your practice annually suffering from WLT poisoning?

   Answer: Half  (50%) had no confirmed cases, a third (33.3%) have had less than 5 cases.  None had more than 5 cases, and 3 did not answer the question.

2) How many of these dogs died?

   Answer: Almost 90% (88.9%) of vets did not know of deaths caused by Western Leopard Toad.  Only a single vet had experience of a Jack Russell that had been brought in without any initial treatment (washing out the mouth) by the owner and was unable to be revived. One vet had heard of a death, but not at his clinic.

3) What breeds of dog are most susceptible?

    Answer: Terrier breeds like Jack Russellӳ and Staffordshire Bull Terriers.  German Shepherds were mentioned, but no cases have been documented.

4) Are there any "problem areas" or times when poisoning is more prevalent?

    Answer: About half (44.4%) suggested at night time, when toads are active.  About half (44.4%) noted winter when the toads were migrating and one tenth  (11%) suggested during spring, during the time that toadlets emerge from the breeding pools.

5) How do you treat the dogs?

    Answer: Cases are treated symptomatically using anti-nausea medication.  Activated charcoal is suggested as well as IV fluid drips.  Lignocaine, diuretics and valium were other substances used in treatment.  This is all standard treatment for poisonous foods and drinks.

6) What do you advise pet owners in terms of prevention and first aid?

    Answer: You must wash out the mouth with water.  Keep dogs indoors during risky periods.  Other suggestions include:  check water bowls, prevent dogs from playing with toads, and train dogs not to attack toads.

7) Compared to other threats to pets such as vehicles, how would you quantify the threat of WLT to pets?

    Answer: The incidence is very low: less than 1% of cases.

8) Do people ever bring to your clinic injured toads for treatment?

    Answer: Almost a third of vets (27.7%) said yes.

9) if yes, what do you do?

    Answer: The five vets indicated that they use antiseptic liquid to clean the wound, but if it is a serious injury like a crushed head or the body cavity is ruptured or the spine is snapped, as there are no facilities to treat this.

What you should do to prevent a serious pet/toad encounter

Place a stone or two in the pets water bowl to allow the toad to get out easily and not get stuck in it. Alternatively keep the water bowl inside, preventing the toad from reaching it.

If you have a terrier breed, or your pet has a history of attacking toads, consider keeping it inside during toad breeding season (July-September) and toadlet emergence (November-January).

Find out if you have leopard toads in your garden and be conscious of their behaviour and where they tend to move or like to be. This way you can keep your pets away from the toads.

Know your pet. If you see that your pet does not worry toads, it is unlikely that it will begin. Most likely it has already learned to leave toads alone. If you know that your pet does not leave toads alone, then you can train it to ignore the toads and leave them alone.

Be conscious of your pets movement if it roams, because as the vets indicated, vehicles and other humans pose a far greater danger to pets.

If you have any further information of a personal experience with your pet/s and a toad, we would like to know. Please Contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602.

Information compiled by Marc Day, May 2009

Posted on 30 June, 2018 17:42 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comments | Leave a comment


Western Leopard Toads are among the easiest frogs to maintain in your garden.  In fact, almost any garden within 1 km of a breeding pond probably has at least one resident toad.  The future of this species depends on toad-friendly gardens, as their natural habitat is almost totally converted to suburbia. Any garden fashion that is toad unfriendly could rapidly result in massive population reductions of this species.


First and foremost, the Western Leopard Toad may live in your garden, but every spring they need to be able to get to their breeding ponds. Then the toadlets need to be able to disperse to gardens.

Is your garden walled off from the outside world?

In our modern security-conscious world high solid walls are becoming the norm.  These are major barriers for wildlife.  For smaller animals, these can be made permeable by having “toad holes” at intervals along the wall.  These also allow other animals to move around.  Toad holes should be 50 mm wide and 30mm high.  You should have at least one toad hole for every 20m of wall.  Roof water pipelines can be counted as toad holes.  A 30mm gap below gates is also perfect.  The ideal for wildlife though is palisade fencing.

Electric fencing at ground level lor below 200mm is a deathtrap to many animals. There is no need for this in urban areas, and - indeed - in most rural areas as well.

Is your pavement a death trap?

Toads need to move to their breeding ponds.  However, some pavements prevent toads from crossing the roads: they are forced to walk along the road where they can be ridden over.  Erect curbstones over 10cm high are barriers.  Usually such curbstones can be crossed at driveways so are not really a problem.  If your neighbourhood has deep gutters, get the municipality to install wildlife escape ramps at intervals of 100m in your street. 

Don’t worry about normal storm water drains.  Some wildlife do use these as shortcuts to wetlands.  However, if these drains have permanent water in them, then they can function as lethal pitfall traps, even to toads and frogs.  They are also breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other pests and need to be repaired.  Alternatively, such drains either need a cover on them to stop animals falling in, or an animal ladder/ramp on the side to allow them to get out.  Contact your nearest environmental officer if you know of any such drains.  Sewerage drains must have gridded covers for the same reason.


Toads need shelter and food in your garden.  Your garden probably has both of these, but you can improve your garden to wildlife by making it environmentally friendly.

How much of your garden is garden?

Paved or tarred areas, areas of stone chips, areas underlain with waterproof plastic and other solid surfaces do not count.  Although these areas look neat and tidy and appeal to many people, they are double trouble.  Firstly, they are sterile and prevent any wild animals (other than some invasive ants) or plants (other than annual weeds) from living there.  Secondly, they do not allow rain water to soak into the soil – instead this water runs off into the storm water system, where it causes severe flooding of wetlands during rains and drying out of wetlands in the dry season.  Why? Because the natural soil recharge where water soaks into the water table and then moves slowly underground to the wetlands in the dry season is destroyed: this water now is dumped immediately into the wetlands.  Some cities are now taxing paved areas as equivalent to dwelling floor space for this reason.

We do need hard surfaces for driveways and paths, so what can we do?  Well, keep the paving to the minimum width.  Use grassovers (paving blocks that allow grass to grow through them) on driveways.  Water from driveways can be drained into your garden and not into the stormwater drains.  If your garden is big enough you can also lead your roofwater into your garden – but not within 2m of your walls or fences!

Lawns look great, but again they are not suitable for most wildlife (other than leatherjackets, earthworms, Eurasion Starlings and Hadedahs – none of which are indigenous to Cape Town).  If you need lawns, keep them to the minimum area.  Where possible mow them slightly higher than normal, so that smaller animals can hide in them.  Also be very careful when you mow in December: look out for Toadlets, and if they are present, rather delay mowing for a week until they have dispersed.

What sort of gardens do Western Leopard Toads prefer?

Although toads don’t care what type of garden you have, like other wildlife they have some important considerations.

Edges:  Walls and borders should have plants against them as cover.  Lawns and pavings against walls are deathtraps for small animals when Fiscal Shrikes, crows, cats, dogs and other predators are around.  A few shrubs against the wall are literally the difference between life and death, and also allow birds and lizards to feed in the open and easily dart for cover.   Especially on your outside facing the street such borders allow many animals to live in the streets – animals as big as Thicknees are able to survive in cities when such borders exist.

Compost Heaps:  In our modern world, the environmentally friendly family will recycle kitchen waste in their compost heap.  This compost can then be used to fertilize the garden.  Both the compost heap itself and the composting will increase the health of your garden and the range of wildlife that is attracted to it.  And your plants will benefit too.

  • Woodpiles: In the modern world woodpiles are increasingly rare.  But if you braai a lot, or like wood fires in winter, consider stacking your wood in a dry area over bare soil rather than on paving.  Only a few pieces of wood will suffer, but the amount of animals that will use the area as a refuge and food source will be amazing. Alternatively, consider having a wood pile that is more permanent. Let it rot and become a home and food source for lots of indigenous animals. If done in the right way, rotting wood can look very attractive and provide a feature for a dark, unused corner of your garden.
  • Rockeries: Dry stone walls, rockeries and other piles of stones also allow plenty of dark, moist hiding places for wildlife, and can be very attractive features in any garden.
  • Ponds:  Western Leopard Toads do not need ponds.  If your garden is watered regularly, they will get all the water they need.   If not they will go and find some water – and it is not unusual to find toads “drinking” by sitting in a pets water bowl.  Don’t worry, the water will not be poisonous afterwards!  See our toads and your pets page. Ensure that ponds (and swimming pools) have escape areas – no high lips all around! See our Install a toadsaver page. Do not take any toads you find to a pond: they do not like water – they are garden dwellers, not like most other frogs.  They can swim, but long periods in water – and especially swimming pool chemicals - kills them

    * Other wildlife:  Gardens suitable for Western Leopard Toads often teem with other wildlife.  Your garden should almost certainly also have Cape Skinks, Cape Dwarf Chameleon, Legless Skinks, Marble Leaf-toed Geckos, Cape Rain Frog (Blaasoppies), and if your are lucky Arum Lily Frogs and Slugeaters as well.  You will probably also have the Golden Mole – please look after it: it is a rare beast and protected by law.  Yes it accidentally kills freshy planted plants and makes lawns look untidy, but they are important for aeration of soil, eating underground grubs and earthworms, and providing safehavens for wildlife.  (Don’t muddle them up with Molerats that will eat your plants from underground).  Your garden almost certainly will also have Cape Whiteeyes, Cape Bulbuls, Double-collared Sunbirds, Olive Thrushes, Cape Robins, Fiscal Shrikes (Jannies), Prinias (Tinktinkies), doves and many other birds.  A bird bath, bird feeding table, or nectar dispenser will help attract more birds.  Your garden should also abound with Bees, Butterflies (especially the Christmas and small Blues), Beetles (Monkey Beetles, Scarab Beetles, Ladybirds, and composting and carrion feeders), Moths, Millipedes (both the stinkers and the pills), and others.  If you are especially lucky you may find Rain Spiders and a huge variety of other goggas as well.  Most of them are good for your garden, helping with composting and keeping down garden pests.   The more wildlife-friendly your garden is the more joy and entertainment you will get out of it.

What do Western Leopard Toads not like?

* Toads absorb moisture through their skin.  They do not like chemicals which kill them: avoid algicides, fungicides and biocides in your swimming pool: they are not environmentally friendly – use them only when you really have to.  Toads can also be killed by detergents from dishwashers, washing machines and laundry: drains with these should be covered.  However, they will be happy with most bath and shower water: a pot plant over or next to such drains often is a good home for toads.  Western Leopard Toads are not pond species: they live in gardens.  Please do not move them to ponds – if they don’t drown they will just walk back.

* Toads also absorb poisons through their skin.  So the spraying of herbicides and pesticides in your garden will kill them if they are directly sprayed.  Unfortunately one does not notice them hiding in their hiding places, but the poisons do find them.  A healthy garden will rely on natural animals to keep pests under control – so keep all poisons to a minimum.  The less you use them, the less you will find that you need to use them.  But if you use poisons, you will kill your biocontrols, and without these animals to eat possible pests, pests will become a serious and expensive problem.  The Western Leopard Toad is probably your biggest and one of the more important pest control in the garden!  And, like all the other wildlife controlling potential pests in your garden, it is free!

* Snail bait is also a poison, and does not only kill snails and slugs, but also birds, Glow Beatles (yes! Your “Glowworms” are beetles and eat snails!), Slugeaters and many other animals that naturally control your snails.  Rather use a more natural method – beer traps for instance, are not a waste of good beer!

* Pesky pets.  Most cats and dogs do not bother Western Leopard Toads.  When scared toads secrete a foul-tasting poison that intelligent pets learn first time to leave alone.  Thus in most gardens dogs, cats and toads coexist happily with mutual respect for each other.  See our toads and your pets page if your pet accidentally bites a toad.

Some breeds though are not suitable for toads.  The only real problem are some of the smaller terrier breeds.  However, these are often indoor dogs, which will dig up your garden chasing every mole, lizard, bird and moving thing anyway.  These dogs are usually instinctive killers and a few do not learn that toads, if threatened, can defend themselves with poison.  In this case, you are best off keeping your dogs out of the garden.  Watch out every summer as it is likely that at least some toads will enter your garden.  But toads also don’t want to be killed and will quickly learn to avoid your dogs.  But dog poisoning is very rare: on average less than one dog per year gets poisoned, compared to the hundreds of dogs that get ridden over each year.


Your garden contains all the food your toad could want.  There is no need to provide any supplements or micronutrients for your toads: their natural food is all that they need.

What do toads do for your garden?

* Western Leopard Toads are voracious feeders of goggas.  Snails, bugs, beetles, earthworms, caterpillars are all good food.  They are one of the larger biocontrol and pest control animals in your garden and should be treated with the care they deserve.  They perform this useful function for free!

* Western Leopard Toads are great garden pets.  Leave them alone to find where they want to nest and feed.  But there is no harm in taming them with titbits (mealworms or earthworms are scrumptious, and mince is a treat), and if you regularly feed your toad it will soon learn and be waiting for you at feeding time.  But remember your toad is part of your garden ecosystem: it is supposed to be keeping your garden free of pests, not living off you.

During dry and cold periods they will stay in their nests (really just a scrape).  Occasionally toads seem to want to move indoors, and some people are comfortable with this.  It is better though if you encourage your toad to sleep outside: inside they seem to favour slippers and shoes as nests, with comic (and unforgettable) consequences. 

Don’t forget to photograph your toad and upload the photo on UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website.  That way if s/he is photographed at the breeding ponds, or during migration, we can track their movements and find out where your toad breeds.

There is no reason why your toad should not come back to your garden year after year.  They have strong homing instincts and regularly return to their favourite spots after breeding.  If you would like to do more for your Western Leopard Toad, then please see how you can help <link to how you can help page>

Conservation issues:

I don’t have Western Leopard Toads in my garden?  Where can I get one?

Western Leopard Toads are an Endangered species.  By law, you are not allowed to transport them or cage them.  Nor are you allowed to sell them.  This applies to the adults, toadlets and tadpoles.  Why is this?

Western Leopard Toads exist as a series of gene pools linked to their breeding ponds.  The different gene pools are all special and contain some genetic features not found in other populations.  Moving toads around mixes up these gene pools and may result in populations becoming genetically unfit and dying out.

If your garden does not have its own Western Leopard Toad then it is for one of two reasons. 
*  Firstly, your garden may not be suitable.  Any toads you put into your garden will then die of starvation.  So it would be both cruel and unethical to do that.  If you are within range of a breeding pond, then concentrate on making your garden environmentally friendly: when you succeed your toad will come hopping.
*  Secondly, you may be too far away from a breeding pool.  Every year the Western Leopard Toad trots down to its pond to ensure that a new generation of toads will populate our gardens.  If your garden is too far away from these ponds, your toad will leave and never come back.  It would also miss the breeding season by arriving too late.  It would then go to a garden nearby the nearest breeding pond it can find, and for the next few years would contaminate the gene pool.  We want to conserve our Western Leopard Toads, not wipe them out. 

If I cannot have a Western Leopard Toads in my garden, what can I have?

The Western Leopard Toad is not the only frog in Cape Town.  There are also the Cape Platanna, Cape Rain Frog, Micro Frog, Rose’s Mountain Toad and Cape Caco within the urban area of Cape Town.  Some of these may occur in your garden.  All of these are in the Red Data List and are also threatened with extinction to some degree.  So you can help by keeping them alive in your garden.  But, like the Western Leopard Toads, only if they occur there already.  Do not move them around or swap them or bring in some other species.  Otherwise you might mix up the gene pools, spread diseases and cause other problems.

Don’t even think about bringing in frogs from outside of Cape Town.  Many of these species will hybridize and interbreed with our frogs and then they will almost certainly become extinct as a species!  Already we have some alien frogs in Cape Town that are causing problems!  Please do not make matters worse!  Our frogs need your help. 

But there is far more to an environmentally friendly garden that just frogs.  You will still have all the other wildlife to enjoy, even if you are unfortunately enough not to have Western Leopard Toads.

Information compiled by Mark Day, May 2009

Posted on 30 June, 2018 16:38 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comments | Leave a comment