Welcome to the Polyphagous Shothole Borer Beetle Atlas

The Polyphagous Shothole Borer (PSHB) beetle has been discovered in Southern Africa and threatens many of the regions indigenous, ornamental, and food-producing trees! HELP us reduce, or at least record, its impact!

YOU CAN CONTRIBUTE by joining this project and adding your observations of healthy and possibly infected trees! This will allow scientists and officials to monitor and limit the outbreak.

Simply survey any tree that might be susceptible (incl. Oaks, Maples and Planes) and look for holes and oozing gum. Photograph the tree with its damage - or just the tree if there is no sign of damage, and add this project to your observation. Fill in question, and you will have helped us to map the spread of this scourge.

Please do not remove bark or chop down trees that you suspect are infected. A team will be dispatched to check and decide on any action. Please note that infected trees need to go into quarantine, and cannot just be chopped down and removed for firewood or dumping: this will spread the beetle and increase the rate of invasion. The PSHB team will be able to advise you as to what to do.

For a full list of susceptible trees, and other species that could be used to monitor this beetle's spread, see below
These are the best trees to use to monitor the PSHB. If you know of any in your area, visit them regularly and record their status every few months. The iNaturalist cell phone app is perfect for this.
•• Avocados,
•• Castor Beans,
•• Coraltrees,
•• Oaks,
•• Maples,
** Planes &
•• Willows,
Local crops susceptible include: Avocado, Macadamia Nut, Pecan Nut, Peach, Orange & Grapes.
Ornamental particularly susceptible include: some Maples, Hollies, Wisterias, Oaks & Camellias.

Please also pay attention to these indigenous species as they have been infected in other parts of the world, and may thus be susceptible to damage by this beetle:
•• Cussonia (Cabbage Trees),
•• Calpurnia (Calpurnias),
•• Diospyros (Monkey Plums),
•• Erythrina (Coral Trees),
•• Schotia (Boerboons),
•• Melianthus (Kruidjie-roer-my-nie),
•• Cunonia capensis (Rooiels),
•• Nuxia floribunda (Forest Elder)
, &
•• Bauhinia (Orchidbushes)*.
(*resistant to the fungus).

If you post a suspected infection, your area will be surveyed, and the observation field that you filled in will be adjusted accordingly, allowing us to use the data to map the spread and hopefully containment of this pest.

Posted on 18 April, 2019 14:26 by tonyrebelo tonyrebelo


Trees used by the beetle and fungus to breed:
These are the best species to use for monitoring possible infections. If you have any in your neighbourhood, please check them every few months, and add another observation to the atlas. Note that absence of infection is very important data!! Please record healthy trees as well!

Acacia melanoxylon Blackwood
Acacia mearnsii Black Wattle
Acer buergerianum Trident Maple
Acer negundo Boxelder Maple
Acer palmatum Japanese Maple
Brachychiton discolor
Gleditsia triacanthos Honeylocust
Liquidambar styraciflua American Sweetgum
Magnolia grandiflora Southern Magnolia
Persea americana Avocado
Platanus × hispanica London Plane
Quercus palustris Pin Oak
Quercus robur Pedunculate Oak
Ricinus communis Castor Bean
Salix alba White Willow
Erythrina caffra South African Coral Tree
Podalyria calyptrata Water Blossom Pea
Psoralea pinnata Dally Pine
Salix mucronata

Posted by tonyrebelo over 5 years ago

Trees listed as infected by the beetle and fungus, but not suitable for breeding
There are two reasons to monitor these species as well, and record them as healthy or infected. Firstly, these are indicator species. The beetles try and breed in them, but cannot survive. They thus indicate the presence of beetles in the area, esp. if their primary host trees are absent.

Secondly, some indigenous species might be susceptible to the beetle, and we need to monitor these to check that the beetle is not decimating or eliminating them. It is uncertain what we can do to save them if they turn out to be highly susceptible, other than to prevent the PSHB spreading in the first place. Please be vigilant!

Indicator species
Bauhinia purpurea Orchid Tree
Betula pendula Silver Birch
Camellia japonica Japanese Camellia
Carya illinoinensis Pecan
Ceiba pentandra Kapok Tree
Cinnamomum camphora Camphor Tree
Citrus × limon Lemon
Citrus × aurantium Orange
Eriobotrya japonica Loquat
Erythrina livingstoniana Aloe Coraltree
Eucalyptus camaldulensis ssp. camaldulensis Murray Red Gum
Ficus carica Common Fig
Fraxinus excelsior European Ash
Jacaranda mimosifolia Blue Jacaranda
Melia azedarach Chinaberry
Platanus occidentalis American Sycamore
Platanus racemosa Western Sycamore
Plumeria rubra var. acutifolia White Frangipani
Populus nigra Black Poplar
Prunus nigra Canada Plum
Prunus persica Peach
Psidium guajava Common Guava
Schinus molle Peruvian Peppertree
Taxodium distichum Baldcypress
Ulmus minor Field Elm
Ulmus parvifolia Chinese Elm
Vitis vinifera Wine Grape

Potentially Susceptible Indigenous Species
Bauhinia galpinii Pride-of-de-Kaap
Buddleja saligna False Olive
Calodendrum capense Cape Chestnut
Calpurnia aurea
Combretum erythrophyllum
Cordia caffra Septee Tree
Cussonia spicata Cabbage Tree
Diospyros dichrophylla Poison Starapple
Diospyros lycioides Bluebush
Ekebergia capensis
Erythrina lysistemon Common Coral Tree
Ficus natalensis Natal Fig
Grewia occidentalis Crossberry
Gymnosporia buxifolia Common Spikethorn
Halleria lucida African Honeysuckle
Harpephyllum caffrum African Plum
Melianthus major Cape Honey Flower
Nuxia floribunda Forest Elder
Afrocarpus falcatus Outeniqua Yellowwood
Podocarpus henkelii Henkel's Yellowwood
Protea mundii Forest Sugarbush
Rapanea melanophloeos Cape Beech
Schotia brachypetala Weeping Boer-Bean
Senegalia galpinii
Vachellia karroo Sweet Thorn
Vachellia sieberiana var. woodii Paperbark Thorn
Virgilia divaricata Gardenroute Keurboom

Posted by tonyrebelo over 5 years ago

Latest List (July 2021): https://www.fabinet.up.ac.za/images/PSHB/8-PSHB_host_list_20210706.pdf

Includes Kiggelaria africana as a breeding host!!!!

Posted by tonyrebelo 3 months ago

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