Begonias of Bhutan's Journal

October 03, 2022

One New Species and Four New Records of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bhutan

Begonia menchunaensis P.Gyeltshen & M.Hughes is described from the cool broadleaved forest of Punakha District in Bhutan. It is assigned to Begonia sect. Diploclinium because it has a tuberous habit and bifid placentae, and is allied to B. picta. Based on its restricted distribution, Begonia menchunaensis is assessed as Critically Endangered under the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Begonia picta, B. rex, B. roxburghii and B. xanthina are reported as new records for Bhutan.

Posted on October 03, 2022 03:23 by phubgyeltshen phubgyeltshen | 0 comments | Leave a comment

July 30, 2022

New distribution records of two Begonias to the flora of Bhutan

Two species of Begonia are collected and described for the flora of Bhutan—panchtharensis and gemmipara. A detailed description, ecology, distribution, notes and photographs of the recorded species are provided.

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Posted on July 30, 2022 16:54 by phubgyeltshen phubgyeltshen | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Begonia flaviflora Hara (Begoniaceae): a new record to the flora of Bhutan

Plant monoecious, herbaceous, 30–80 cm tall. Rhizome oblong, 6–12 × 1–3 cm with several offsets giving rise to new shoots, adventitious roots growing from the rhizome. Stem erect, 20–40 cm long, with sparsely brownish pubescent, lowermost internodes 10–22 cm long and 6–7 mm wide, unbranching, 2–4 leaves per stem. Stipule persistent, ovate, 10–15 × 3–5 mm, papery, keeled, apex cuspidate (1–4 mm), margin entire. Leaves alternate; petiole cylindrical, 4–28 cm long, 3–8 mm thick, green, brownish pubescent surface; blade asymmetric, ovate to broadly ovate 10–20 × 8–23 cm, basifixed, apex acute to acuminate or shortly caudate, base deeply cordate, margin shallowly lobed and ciliate, venation palmate-reticulate, 7–8 veined; adaxial surface green or dark green with minute appressed white hairs, hairs less than 0.2mm long; abaxial surface glabrous, sparsely brownish pubescent on veins, green with purplish colour along the veins and towards the margin. Inflorescences cymose, 1–2, terminal or axillary on long stem with 1–2 internodes, 2–4 flowers per peduncle, erect; peduncles cylindrical, 8–15 cm long, 2–3 mm wide, green to red, brownish pubescent. Floral bracts narrowly ovate, 2–3.5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, pinkish, glabrous, margin entire, base and apex truncate, adaxial surface is wrinkled and covered with soft hairs, veins numerous, decduous. Staminate flower: pedicel up to 3cm long, pale red to pale greenish-yellow, brownish pubescent; tepals 4, golden yellow, glabrous, margin entire; outer 2, deltoid, 15–19 × 12–16 mm, cucullate, upper tepal’s apex prominently recurved, lower tepal’s apex slightly recurved, base truncate, 10–12 veined; inner 2, ovate-elliptic, 12–14 × 7–9 mm, cucullate, apex rounded to sub-acute, base slightly oblique-truncate, 9–11 veined; stamens numerous, 2–3 mm long, filaments free, anther obovate-oblong, golden yellow. Pistillate flower: pedicel up to 3 cm long, pale yellowish-green, light pinkish-green, brownish pubescent; tepals 5, unequal, golden yellow, glabrous, margin entire to slightly wavy; outer 2, ovate, 7–11 × 5–7 mm, concave, apex acute, base truncate, 12–13 veined; inner 3, ovate to ovate-elliptic, 17.5–19 × 14–16 cm, concave, apex acute to subacute, base truncate; ovary yellowish-green, glabrous, with three unequal wings, 2 locules, placentation axillary, two branches per locule; styles 2, Y-shaped, 3–3.5 mm long, fused at base,golden yellow; stigma spiraled, papillose all around. Capsule trigonous-globose, 7–11 × 6–8 mm, yellowish-green; longest wing obovoid-oblong, 1.5–1.7 × 1.5–1.7 cm, slightly falcate at apex, crenate, narrow towards base, lateral wings 1.6–2.2 × 0.4–0.6 cm, tuberculate on surface of the ovary including its wings. Seeds numerous, white when young, oblong, c. 0.2–0.3 × c. 0.2 mm.

Specimens examined: THIM15583, 10 August 2019, Shingkhar, Zhemgang, Bhutan, 27.1520N, 90.8750E, 1,914–2,399 m, P. Gyeltshen & S. Sherab 012–013.

Posted on July 30, 2022 16:52 by phubgyeltshen phubgyeltshen | 0 comments | Leave a comment

A new species of Begonia sect. Diploclinium, Begonia bhutanensis, from Bhutan

Begonia bhutanensis P.Gyeltshen & M.Hughes, sp. nov. (§ Diploclinium).
Resembles Begonia rubella in habit, but differs in having fimbriate-laciniate bracts (not entire), rounded wings on the capsule (not elongate triangular), and a symmetric androecium with sub-uniformly sized anthers (not asymmetric with markedly heteromorphic anthers (Rajbhandary et al., 2011). – TYPE: Bhutan, Zhemgang District, Zhangling, Shingkhar block, 1070 m, 27°08′24.37″N 90°55′16.34″E, 26 August 2019, P. Gyeltshen & S. Jamtsho 42 (holotype THIM; isotype THIM).

Plant monoecious, tuberous, herbaceous, 35–50 cm tall. Tuber subglobose, c. 1.9 × 1.6 cm, a creeping tuberous rhizome is also present, c. 4 × 0.8 cm, forming on an adventitious root from near the apex of the tuber. Stem erect or slightly pendent at distal portion, present during flowering, 44–45 cm long, red, glabrous, lowermost internodes 4–6 mm apart, unbranching, 2–4 leaves per stem. Stipules ovate, 1.5–2 × 0.8–1.2 cm, papery, keeled, apex cuspidate, margin entire, adaxial surface glabrous. Leaves alternate; petioles cylindrical, 3–12 cm long, 2–3 mm thick, reddish green, glabrous; lamina broadly ovate, 6–17 × 5 16 cm, basifixed, base cordate, margin subentire and sparsely white ciliate, apex broadly acuminate, venation palmate-reticulate, veins 5–6; adaxial surface with sparsely scattered appressed white hairs c. 2 mm long; abaxial surface paler green, glabrous. Inflorescences terminal or axillary on stems with 4–5 internodes, bisexual, protandrous, dichasial cymes with 4–5 branches, erect to pendent; peduncles cylindrical, up to 26 cm long, reddish green or green, glabrous, bracts oblong, c. 5 × 2 mm, margin long fimbriate, apex obtuse, base truncate, glabrous. Staminate flower: pedicel c. 1–1.7 cm long, pale green, glabrous; tepals 4, pale pink to pink, margin entire; outer 2 orbicular, 7–9 × 6–8 mm, glabrous, apex and base rounded, margin entire, up to 8-veined; inner 2 narrowly obovate, 6–8 × 3–4 mm, glabrous, apex rounded, base obtuse; androecium loosely globose, stamens c. 20–25, 1–2 mm long, on a c. 2.5 mm column, anthers obovate-oblong, golden yellow, basal anthers sessile, central anthers on a c. 0.5 mm filament, apex rounded and slightly extended. Pistillate flower: pedicel up to 3 cm long, pale green to light pinkish-green, glabrous, tepals 3–4, pale pink to pink, glabrous, margin entire; outer 2 orbicular, 6–8 × 7–10 mm, orbicular, apex rounded, base truncate; inner 1–2 elliptic, 6–7 × 3–5 mm, base sub-obtuse; ovary green sometimes light pinkish on the wings, glabrous, with 3 subequal wings, 3 locules, placentation axillary, 2 branches per locule; styles 3, golden yellow, Y-shaped, c. 3 mm long, fused at base; stigma spiralled, spiral part papillose. Fruits green to pale pinkish green, trigonous-globose, c. 1.7 × 0.6 cm, glabrous; dorsal wing c. 1.7 × 1 cm, slightly falcate at apex, narrower towards the base, lateral wings c. 1.5 × 0.2–0.3 cm.

Posted on July 30, 2022 16:43 by phubgyeltshen phubgyeltshen | 0 comments | Leave a comment