Caesalps on southern continents, part 3

Having covered Australia and South America, let us turn to Africa, where caesalps dominate some of the most extensive types of vegetation, and characterise important ecosystems (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_miombo_woodlands and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Zambezian_miombo_woodlands and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_miombo_woodlands and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zambezian_and_mopane_woodlands and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_miombo_woodlands).

Much of tropical Africa is covered by woodlands and savannas dominated collectively by the caesalps Brachystegia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brachystegia), Julbernardia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julbernardia) and Isoberlinia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isoberlinia), all of which are ectomycorrhizal.

Extensive savanna in tropical southern Africa is dominated by Colophospermum (https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Zambezian_and_mopane_woodlands and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mopane), which is not ectomycorrhizal.

Minor areas are dominated by the small trees Baikiaea (https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Baikiaea_plurijuga and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baikiaea) and Burkea (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/84055435 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/84280090 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/40353399 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burkea_(plant)).

Tropical rainforest is in places dominated by Gilbertiodendron (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbertiodendron), Julbernardia and Cryptosepalum (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptosepalum_exfoliatum), all of which are ectomycorrhizal, and possibly also Baikiaea (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baikiaea_insignis), Cynometra and Tetraberlinia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetraberlinia_tubmaniana).

Tropical rainforest elsewhere contains Anthonotha (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthonotha), Berlinia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlinia), Microberlinia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microberlinia_bisulcata), Aphanocalyx (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphanocalyx), Paramacrolobium (https://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Paramacrolobium+coeruleum), Didelotia and Afzelia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afzelia_africana), all of which are also ectomycorrhizal (https://www.academia.edu/27848967/Ectomycorrhizas_in_plant_communities and https://mycorrhizas.info/ecm.html) despite failing to dominate the canopy.

Dialium occurs as a minor component of equatorial rainforest in Africa (e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialium_corbisieri), as it does in South America.

As on the other southern continents, there are shrubby/weedy caesalps in the genera Cassia, Senna, Chamaecrista, Piliostigma and Bauhinia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Southern_African_indigenous_trees_and_woody_lianes#Caesalpiniaceae). In addition there is Pterolobium (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterolobium and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterolobium_stellatum), which does not occur on the other southern continents.

Caesalps in the form of large shrubs or small trees occur in semi-deserts in Africa, e.g. Parkinsonia (shared with South America), Ceratonia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratonia) and Dialium (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialium_guineense and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/27754490 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialium_orientale).

Guibourtia in the form of trees (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guibourtia_coleosperma and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/33591043) extends to extratropical southern Africa, as a minor part of the vegetation, as do small trees of Schotia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schotia) and Peltophorum. However, the only ectomycorrhizal caesalp that extends considerably into South Africa is Afzelia quanzensis.

To be continued...

Posted by milewski milewski, 08 November, 2021 00:04

Comments

Erythrophleum occurs in both Australia and Africa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythrophleum_africanum). Hymenaea occurs in both South America and Africa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hymenaea_verrucosa).

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago (Flag)

The caesalp Umtiza, which is a small tree, is restricted to South Africa well beyond the tropics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umtiza and http://pza.sanbi.org/umtiza-listeriana and https://www.sa-venues.com/game-reserves/umtiza-forest-reserve.php.

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago (Flag)
Posted by milewski about 1 year ago (Flag)

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